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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difference between antimicrobial and antibiotic agents?
Antimicrobial-kill or supress the growth of microorganisms
Antibiotics-compounds produced by microorganisms that at high dilutions are inhibitory to other microorganisms.
What does bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic mean? These are the classifications for Antimicrobial drugs. Give examples.
cidal-kill microorganisms ex: penicillin, cephalosporin, aminoglycosides (injections that weaken our muscles over time)
static-supress the growth of microorganisms. ex: tetracyclines, sulfonamides(UTI)
How are bacteria classified?(2)
shape-cocci(sphere),bacilli(rod), streptococcus(chain)
histologic staining- retention of discoloration of Gram stain is Gram positive. No color uptake is Gram negative.
What are the 3 main principles of the Antimicrobial theory?
1. exhibits selective toxicity so it only is harmful to microbes and safe for the host.
2. Not always the case but is primarily less harmful to host than to microbes.
3. Ability to penetrate certain tissues in vivo which is more important than in Petri dish tests. (Able to work in our systems)
Are drugs essential in treating infections?
No. Over time our body will over take infection.
What does the spectrum of a drug refer to? (2)
Refers to the species of microorganisms affected by the drug. Narrow or Broad.
What are the 4 mechanisms of action used by antimicrobials.
1. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis(penecillin, cephalosporin)
2. Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis(aminoglycosides, tetracylclines)
3. Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis(rifampin, sulfonamide, folic acid inhibitors)
4. Inhibition of cell membrane function(amphotericin B, polymyxins)
What does resistance to Antimocrobial drugs refer to?
Bacteria become resistant if their growth is not halted to the maximum level of an antibiotic tolerated by the host.
What are the 4 mechanisms of drug resistance?
1. Changes in drug permeability: causes the drug to be less or non permeable to the bacteria.
2. Increased capability of drug inactivation: MOs produce enzymes that destroy the active drug.
3. Overuse or misuse in patients needing antibiotics: results in more patient deaths and continued trends of diminished effectiveness.
4. Overuse in meats or poultry production.
What 3 drug types inhibit cell wall synthesis?
1. Beta Lactam(penicillin)
2. Vancomycin
3. Bacitracin
What are the therapeutic uses of penicillin? (3)
1. Gram + coccal infections
2. Gram - coccal infections
3. Syphilis
What are the 3 main SE of penicillin?
1. Hypersensitivity(allergic)
2. Diarrhea
3. GI distress
What 4 drugs are bacterial protein synthesis inhibitors?
1. Aminoglycosides
2. Macrolides
3. Tetracyclines
4. Clindamycin
What are the therapuetic uses(2) and SE of aminoglycosides(4)?
1. employed against Gram - enteric bacteria when sepsis is suspected.
2. Used as a synergist with other drugs to treat life threatening infections like sepsis. Multiplies the effectiveness.
Side Effects:
1. Ototoxicity: tinnitus, deafness, lack of balance.(reversible)
2. Nephrotoxicity: acute tubular necrosis (reversible)
3. Neuromuscular paralysis:
when combined with neuromuscular blockers it potentiates this effect.
4. Allergic reactions: dermatitis.
What are the uses(5) and side effects(3) of tetracyclines?
1. Rickettsial infections
2. Chlamydial infections
3. Mycoplasma infections(walking pnuemonia)
4. Venereal infections (syphilis, gonorrehea)
5. Chronic acne
Side Effects:
1. Phototoxicity(stay out of sun)
2. Gastic discomfort
3. Contraindicated in pregnant women and children under 8 because it can cause discoloration and hypoplasia of the teeth and a temporary stunting of growth.
What are the general characteristics of Tetracyclines(3)?
Bacteriostatic, broad spectrum, inhibit protein synthesis.
What are the general characteristics of macrolides(3)?
Bacteriostatic, Broad spectrum, inhibit protein synthesis.
What is the primary use of macrolides? What are the side effects(2)?
Alternative therapy for patients allergic to penecillin.
Side Effects:
1. GI distress
2. Hepatotoxicity (jaundice)
What are the 3 main drugs that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis?
1. Sulfonamides
2. Trimethoprim
3. Quinolones
What are the uses(6) and side effects of Sulfonamides(4)?
1. Combination with trimethoprim
2. Acute UTI
3. Trachoma and conjunctivitis
4. Nocardia
5. Prevent colonization of burns or wounds.
6. Last resort for immuno compromised patients.
Side effects:
1. Crystalluria
2. Hypersensitivity: allergic
3. Blood disorders
4 Jaundice in newborns
What is the mechanism of action for Trimethoprim?
Inhibit enzyme that is crucial for bacterial survival(dihydrofolate reductase)
What is the use and side effects(2)of Trimethoprim?
same as sulfonamide and used in combo with sulfonamide.
Side effects:
1. megaloblastic anemia
2. Leukopenia
What are the general characteristics of Quinolones(3)?
1. Inhibits replication of bacterial DNA by interfering with DNA gyrase.
2. Bacteriocidal
3. New drug
What are the therapeutic uses(4) and side effects of Quinolones(5)?
1. UTI
2. Infectious Diarrhea
3. Lower RTI
4. Bone infections
Side Effects:
1. GI disorders
2. Damage to growth cartilage
3. Photosensitivity
4. Hypersensitivity: allergic
5. CNS disorders such as headache or seizures
What is the concern with meningitis exposure(2)?
1. Potentially deadly CNS infection
2. Easy to prevent but difficult to treat(antibiotics)
What is the procedure for those who come in contact with an infectious patient?
Treat with Rifampin for 2 days. Discolors every bodily fluid a burnt orange: tears, saliva, sweat, urine, ect.
What are the major concerns for PT with antimicrobial drug use(3)?
1. Aminoglycosides weaken muscles especially in bed ridden or debilitated patients.
2. This effect is potentiated when combined with neuromuscular blockers and may increase need for PT and prolong hospitalization.
3. Main thing to remember is to look for precautions posted on patients door or in chart about infectious disease.