Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Primary controllers of vascular tone used to primarily lower blood pressure
Alpha blockers
Name three alpha 1 selective agents commonly used in treatment of hypertension
Little impact on the heart but they have selective effects which are evident in their side effect profiles
Alpha blockers
Side effects of alpha blockers
- Postural hypotension with reflex tachycardia (most common)
- Nasal congestion and headache
- Rebound hypertension if stopped abruptly
Name two non-selective alpha blockers that can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of the symptoms of pheochromocytoma
Name three subgroups of beta blockers
- Nonselective beta blockers (beta1 and beta 2) - PROPRANOLOL, timolol, nadolol

- Beta 1 selective agents - METOPROLOL, atenolol,esmolol acebutolol,

- Beta 2 selective agents
Cardiac uses of beta blockers (most common)


- Prophylaxis after MI
Less common uses (nonn-cardiac) of beta blockers
- Symptomatic treatment of hyperthyroidism

- Prophylaxis against migraine headaches

- Anxiety disorder
Which beta blockers have negative inotropic and chronotropic effects - slowing of SA and AV nodes
Beta 1
Which beta blockers work by decreasing cardiac output
Beta 1
Beta 2 blockers are contraindicated in patients with _
Which beta blockers work by constriction of airway smooth muscles
Beta 2
Endocrine effects of beta blockers
Decreased glycogenolysis
Decreased glucagon release
Can diabetic patients take beta blockers
Should be used with caution in patients with diabetes who take insulin and are at risk for hypoglycemia
Ocular effects of beta blockers
Decreased aqueous humor production by processes of ciliary body
Name beta blocker that can be used topically for glaucoma
Adverse effects of beta blockers
- Sexual dysfunction in males

- Arrythmias if drug is stopped abruptly

- Bronchoconstriction

- Blocking hypoglycemic response in diabetics
Second line anti hypertensive agents
Ca channel blockers
Mechanism of action of ca channel blockers
Binding to L type Ca channel of vascular smooth muscle cells and myocytes, block entry of Ca into those cells
These agents affect both vascular tone and the heart itself - effects on the heart include negative inotropy and slowing of the conduction system
Ca channel blockers
Name two classes of Ca channel blockers

Which Ca channel blockers have greater effect on vascular smooth muscle than on the heart - give examples
Which Ca channel blockers have increasingly greate effects on the myocardium
Nondihydropyridines - DILTIAZEM, VERAPAMIL
Adverse effects of Ca channel blockers
Exacerbation of GERD
Along with alpha-methyldopa, a centrally acring antihypertensive drug, acts as AGONIST AT PRESYNAPTIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORS, decreasing central sympathetic tone
Adverse effects of clonidine
Sedation and REBOUND HYPERTENSION if drug is stopped abruptly
Giving IV this agent is the drug of choice for HYPERTENSIVE EMERGENCIES
Sodium nitroprusside
This drug should always be given IV, given orally this drug is toxic because it results in cyanide production, affects both arterial and venous smooth muscle
Sodium nitroprusside
These agents are not first line agents for hypertension, often used with beta blockers and diuretics, REFLEX TACHYCARDIA that results can actually precipitate attacks of angina
Adverse effects to hydralazine
Headache, arrhythmias and LUPUS-LIKE REACTION
Adverse effects of MINOXIDIL
Sodium retention and hypertrichosis
This Ca channel blocker can be used to control the ventricular response rate in atrial fibrillation because it slows AV nodal conduction
These antihypertensive agents can also be used to treat symptoms of BPH
Alpha 1 blockers
These antihypertensive agents can mask many of the symptoms of hypoglycemia ( tremors, sweating, palpitations) mediated by epinephrine. This as well as endocrine effects puts individuals taking them with insulin dependent diabetes at increased risk of profound hypoglycemia
Beta blockers