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44 Cards in this Set

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Name 3 2nd generation antihistamines.
1- Cetirizine
2-loratadine
3-fexofenadine
Name 2 ocular antihistamines.
1-Olopatadine
2- levocabastine
H1 receptors effect what molecule pathway?
IP3
H2 receptors effect what molecular pathway?
adenylyl cyclase and increases cAMP
When I say H2, you say _____(body part).
stomach
What are 5 side effects of H1 antagonists.
1- sedation
2- blurred vision
3- nervousness
4- dryness
5- urinary retention
Do 2nd generation antihistamines have a long/ or short duration of action?
LOng (12-24 hours) this is good
Name 5 things that can activate mast cells.
1- IgE
2- C5a, C3a
3- opiates
4- heat/cold trauma
5- chronic urticaria
The bind of Histamine to H1 causes _____, ___, and ___?
iching, vasodilation and gastric acid production
Histamine will ____ PR.
Lower
What effect does histamine and H1 have on the bronchial smooth muscle?
bronchoconstriction
Dont give antihistamines to ____ patients.
asthmatic
What drug is the "yin to the yang" of histamine. it has opposite effects.
epinephrine
Chromalins are a family of ________ and are given to patients with ____.
mass cell stabilizers, asthma
Leukotriene C4 is a _______ that causes ___ and _____.
Bronchocontrictor, spasms and mucosal edema
Could you use an antileukotriene for asthmatic patients.
of course, this causes broncodilation
What enzyme is resposible for the conversion of arachidonic acid into leukotrienes?
5-lipoxogenase
What drug inhibits the SYNTHESIS of 5-lipoxogenase?
Zileuton (inhibits synthesis)
What 3 drugs competitively bind to the receptor of leukotrienes?
1- Montelukast
2- pranlukast
3- zafirlukast
Describe the onset of LTC4.
late onset of about 3-4 hours
Can you use Zafirlukast on patients with liver abnormalites?
NO! (this is a competitive inhibitor of the receptor)
What 3 drugs are used to treat gout?
1- NSAIDS
2- Colchincine
3- Uricosurics
Describe the metabolism of acetaminophen.
metabolized in the liver through glucuronidation
What are 2 molecules that you use up when overdosing on tylenol?
glucuronic acid
and glutathione
What does gout present as?
recurrent episodes of acute arthritis
What substance is laid down int the synovial fluid and tissues in gout?
monosodium crystals
In gout you will see ___ levels of blood and urinary uric acid levels.
increased
Gout occurs mostly in ___.
men
Uric acid is the end product of ___ metabolism.
purine
Can renal dysfunction cause gout?
yes, we excrete uric acid, if this process is reduced we get a build up of the uric acid.
Is uric acid filtered through the glomerulus?
no, it is called tubular secretion--presented directly from the blood
In what part of the nephron is the pump that pumps uric acid from the blood into the tubule?
DCT
What are 4 ways to acquire hyperuricemia?
1- eat too much
2- hematologic (break down too many cells
3- drugs
4- disease like obesity......
What are some drugs that decrease the renal excretiong of urate?
1- cyclosporine
2- thiazides
3-loops
4- aspirin
5-levodopa
6-nicotinic acid
What is the best drug (2)to use to treat acute gout?
NSAIDS- Indomethacin (for pain)
Colchicines
What is the anti-inflammatory drug used in treating gout?
Cholchicines
Does Cholchicine relieve pain?
No
When exactly shoudl you take chochicine?
at the first sign of attackq
What is a drug you can use to treat long-term gout? Describe this drug.
uricosuric, it increases renal excretion and thus uric acid excretion
What drug competes with the reabsorption of uric acid and thus more uric acid is excreted?
probenecid
______ blocks uricosuric effects.
salicylates
_____ is an uricosuric drug.
probenecid
What drug inhibits xanthine oxidase?
allopurinol
_______ is the enxzyme that forms uric acid.
xanthine oxidase