Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Antifungal Agents: What is Amphotericin B?
Amphotericin B:
-Broad spectrum IV agent for treating many types of fungus
-Nephrotoxicity COMMON
-Administration requirements
Antifungal Agents: What are the "Azole" Antifungals and Topical Antifungal Agents?
"Azole" Antifungals:
1. Fluconazole
2. Ketoconazole
3. Itraconazole
4. Voriconazole

Topical Agents:
Clotrimazole and others
Antiviral Agents: What are the three antiviral agents?
Antiviral Agents:
1. Acyclovir
2. Famciclovir
3. Valacyclovir
4. Ganciclovir
5. Valganciclovir -oral advantage
6. Foscarnet -watch electrolytes
7. Cidofovir-very long acting; dosed every 2 weeks
Antiretroviral Therapy: What are the common characteristics of NRTIs?
-8 Agents
-Generally well tolerated
-Limited drug interactions
-Limited food interactions
-Didanosine (DDI) (Videx): NO FOOD
-Tenofovir (Viread): WITH FOOD
What are common adverse effects of NRTIs?
Common adverse effects of NRTIs:
-GI effects: n/v/d
-PANCREATITIS: DDI and Stavudine
-Peripheral Neuropathy
What are some unique adverse effects of NRTIs?
Unique adverse effects of NRTIs:
*monitor H/H, ANC
*may need Epo/filgrastim
*component of Combivir/Trizivir
-Abacavir Hypersensitivity - may be FATAL
-flu like symptoms or respiratory symptoms
-life threatening symptoms on rechallenge
-component of TRIZIVIR (combination product)
Adherence for NRTIs?
NRTIs adherence:
-generally "adherence friendly"
-Tenofovir: one 300mg tablet once daily
-Combination products: Combivir, Trizivir
What are the common characteristics of NNRTIs?
Common characteristics of NNRTI's:
-3 agents
-Limited food interactions
-Extensive drug interactions:
Nevaripine: 3A INDUCER
Delavirdine: 3A INHIBITOR
Efavirenz: MIXED inducer/inhibitor
What are common adverse effects of NNRTIs?
Common adverse effects of NNRTIs:
-RASH: highest incidence with NEVIRAPINE; decrease risk with dose titration 200 mg QID (2 wks)to BID
-Increased transaminase levels
What are unique adverse effects of NNRTIs?
Unique adverse effects of NNRTIs:
-EFAVIRENZ: CNS symptoms
*dizziness, confusion, nightmares, hallucinations
*adminster at bedtime to improve tolerability
*effect subsides over 2-4 weeks
EFAVIRENZ: Teratogenicity
Nevirapine: HEPATITIS
*not recommended for health care worker chemoprophylaxis
What are common characteristics of PIs?
Common characteristics of PIs:
-8 agents
-Extensive food interactions
-Extensive drug interactions
*ritonavir MOST POTENT
-HIGH pill burden
What are common adverse effects of PIs?
Common adverse effects of PIs:
-GI effects: n/v/d
-Fat distribution
-Lipid abnormalities
What are unique adverse effects of PIs?
Unique adverse effects of PIs:
-Indinavir: Nephrolithiasis
*prevented by increased fluid intake
-Amprenavir: Formulation Concerns
*High Vitamin E content in capsules
*Propylene glycol in oral solution; contraindicated in pregnancy, young children, renal/hepatic failure
-Kaletra: High ALCOHOL content in solution
Explain the significance of Ritonavir?
-Rarely used alone as an antiviral
-Combined with other PI agents to act as "Pharmacokinetic Booster"
-Increase in levels may remove food restrictions (Indinavir) or allow for lower doses of other PI agents (Amprenavir)
What does HAART stand for?
How is HAART monitored?
Monitoring HAART:
-Plasma HIV RNA testing (Viral Load)
*2-8 weeks after start of therapy
*3-4 months after start of therapy
*every 3-4 months thereafter
*goal: VL <50 copies/ml (ultransensitive assay)
-CD4 counts monitored simultaneously
What are some drug interactions with HAART?
Drug Interactions:
-Potential for drug interactions greatest with NNRTIs and PIs
-Focus on the few contraindicated drug combinations (Comcomitant use of fluticason and ritonavir results in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations. Cadmin. of fluticasone and ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonaivr is not recommended unless benefits outweighs side effects)
-Focus on the major categories of drug interactions (Antifungals, Anti-myobacterials, Oral Contraceptives, Lipid-Lowering Agents, Anti-Convulsants, Erectile Dysfunction Agents)
What are the the drug interactions with contraindicated regimens?
Contraindicated Regimens:
-Cardiac Agents
*Antiarrhythmics with ritonavir
*Lovastatin, simvastatin with all PIs, delavirdine
-Midazolam, triazolam
-St. John's wort
-H2A's, PPIs with delavirdine
What are the major categories of drug interactions?
Major categories:
Oral Contraceptives
Methadone (requires increased dose)
Warfarin and efavirenz
What are some future developments in HAART therapy?
Future developments:
-Fusion inhibitors (T 20/enfuvirtide)
*Fuzeon from Trimeris/Roche in Phase 3 trials
*acts by binding to GP-41 on HIV cell, thus blocking the binding of HIV to T cells
*as a peptide, is given as SC injection BID
*recently FDA approved and is available
-AIDS Vaccine Research