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26 Cards in this Set

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ANTIFEDERALISTS
OPPOSSED TO A STRONG FEDERAL GOV; SAW UNDEMOCRATIC TENDENCIES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND INSISTED ON THE INCLUSION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS. INCLUDED THOMAS JEFFERSON, JAMES MONROE, AND PATRICK HENRY.
CHECKS AND BALANCES
SYSTEM EMBODIED IN THE CONSTITUTION THROUGH WHICH THE POWER OF EACH BRANCE OF GOVERNMENT IS LIMITED BY THE OTHER; THE PRESIDENT'S AUTHORITY to veto legislation and congress's power to overtied that veto
Compact Theory
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if the government breaks the compact by exceeding it's authority
Confederation
A political system in which the central government is relatively weak and memeber states retain considerable sovereignty
Enumerated Powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; Including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war
Factions
Political groups that agree on objectives and policies; the origins of political parties
Loose Construction
Constitution is broadly interpreted, recognizing that it could not possible anticipate all future developments; relies on the idea of implied powers and the "necessary and proper" clause. Both views on how to interpret the Constitution came up during the debate on charterting the Bank of US in 1791
Separation of Powers
The structure of government provided for in the Constitution where authority is dvided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches; idea comes from Montesquieu's Spirit Of the Laws
States rights
Acording to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not speficially delegated to the central govt. by the Constitution
Strict Construction
The principle that the national government is legally granted only those powers spefically delegated in the Constitution
Tariff
A tax on imports (also referred to a "duty"), taxes on exports are banned by the Constitution. A protective "___" has rates high enough to discourage imports
American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tarriffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong control for federal government in the economy
Corrupt Bargain
Refers to the claim from supporters of Andrew Jackson that John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay had worked out a deal to ensure that Adams was elected President by the House of Reps. in 1824
Embargo
An attempt to withold good from export in order to influence the policies of the former purchases
Era of Good feelings
Refers to the period after War of 1812 during the presidency of James Monroe, when competition among political parties was at a low ebb
Impressment
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812
Internal Improvements
Included roads, canals, railroads; an internal transportation network that would bind the country together
Judicial Review
The right of the Supreme Court to declare a law passed by Congress unconstitutional; the principal was established in Marbury v.Madison, but was original sketched out in Hamilton's essay#78 in the "Federalist Papers"
Kitchen Cabinet
Informal group of friends who advised Jackson during his admnistration. Jackson believed that the "official" Cabinet's main function was to carry out his orders.
Missouri Compromise
Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820; slavery would be prohibited in the LA territory north of 36 degree 30 parrallel ; missourie would enter the union as a slave state, Maine would enter as a free state
Montro Doctrine
A US Policy that sought to insulate the Western Hemisphere from a European intervention
Nullification
The theory advanced by John Calhoun in a response to the Tarriff of 1828; states, acting through a popular convention, could declare a law passed by Congress"null & void"; the roots of the idea go back to Jefferson and Madison's compact theory of government and are originally spelled out in the Kentucky and VA Resolutions
Pet Banks
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the sate banks that the Federal government used for new revenue depostis in an attempt to destryoy the Second Bank of the US; the practice continued after the carter for the Second Bank expired in 1836
Spoils System
Essentially, a political patronage; public offices went to politcal supporters during Jackson's presidenciey
War Hawks
Those nationalist members of Congress who strongly supported war with Great Britain on the eve of the war of 1812; included Clay and Calhoun
Whig party
a national political coalition formed to opposed the Jacksonian Democrats