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44 Cards in this Set

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True or False
In an epileptic seizure, the neuronal activity is always wide spread.
False.
Depending on the type of seizure, the neuronal activity may be localized to a specific area or could spread to other areas of the brain.
This is associated with the presence of a group or focus of cerebral neurons that are hyperexcitable or irritable.
Epilepsy
Name the two types of Epilipsy
Primary and Secondary
This type of Epilepsy has no specific anatomis cause that is evident.
Primary
This type of Epilepsy may be produced by inherited abnormality in the CNS.
Primary
In this type of Epilepsy, patients are treated with drugs on a chronic basis for life.
Primary
In this type of Epilepsy a number of reversible events such as tumors, head trauma, hypoglycemia, meningeal infection or rapid withdrawal of alcohol from an alcoholic can precipitate seizures.
Secondary
In this type of Epilepsy, patients are treated until the primary cause of seizure is corrected.
Secondary
What 2 things can drugs that are effective in seizure reduction accomplish?
- Block the initiation of electrical discharge from the focal are
- Prevent the spread of abnormal electrical discharge to adjacent brain areas.
True or False
Initial drug treatment to reduce the incidence of seizures is based on the individual taking the drug
False. Initial drug tx to reduce the incidence of seizures is bases on the specific type of seizure
Name 4 major categories of drugs for Epilepsy
Hydantoins
Iminostilbenes
Caroxylic Acids
Succimides
Name two other drugs that are more often used for other conditions but may be used for Epilepsy?
- Benzodiazepine
- Barbiturates
What is the major drug for Hydantoins?
Phenytoin (DILANTIN)
What is the major drug for Iminostilbenes?
Carbamezapine (TEGRETOL)
What is the major drug for CARBOXYLIC ACIDS?
Valproic Acid (DEPAKOTE)
What is the major drug for SUCCIMIDES?
Ethosuximide (ZARONTIN)
This drug stabilization of neuronal membranes to depolarization by decreasing the influx of sodium ions into neurons
Hydantoins
This drug reduces the propagation of abnormal impulses in the brain
Hydantoins
This drug does not cause generalized CNS depression (like the barbiturates), but it can cause drowsiness not hypnosis
Hydantoins
This drug is bound to plasma proteins
Hydantoins
How are Hydantoins active?
orally or intravenously
True or False
Tx with Hydantoins should not be stopped abruptly
True
What are the side effects of Hydantoins?
CNS: Nystagmus and ataxia (due to depression of the cerebellum and vestinular system - confusion - hallucinationa - drowsiness
GI: Nausea and vomiting
- Gingial hyperplasia (especially in children)
- Blood dyscrasias such as megaloblastic anemia
What are the Therapeutic uses for Hydantoins?
- All partial seizures (simple and complex)
- Tonic-clonic seizures
- Status epilepticus caused by recurrent tonic-clonic seizures
- Neurosurgically induced seizures
In this class of drug for epilepsy, the mech of action is to decrease the influx of calcium ions during depolarization
Hydantoins
This type of drug is equivalent to phenytoin in efficacy and side effects
Iminostilbenes
This type of epileptic drug acts by reducing the propagation of abnormal impulses in the brain by blocking sodium channels. Therefore, it inhibits the generation of repetitive action potentials in the epileptic focus.
Iminostilbenes
This type of epileptic drug suppresses repetitive firing of neurons
Hydantoins
How are Iminostilbenes active?
Orally. Can induce drug metabolizing drugs in the liver.
What are the side effects of Iminostilbenes?
Dizziness, Drowsiness, Ataxia,Blurred Vision, Cardiac Arrhythmias, Aplastic Anemia
What type of seizures are Iminostilbenes used for?
All partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures
This type of epileptic drug acts by reducing the propagation of abnormal electrial discharge in the brain. It may also enhace the effect of the inhibitory transmitter, GABA.
Carboxylic Acids
How are Carboxylic Acids active?
orally
What are the side effects of Carboxylic Acids?
GI distress, Temporary hair loss, Sedation, Ataxia, Impaired platelet function (increased bleeding time)
What type of seizures are treated with Carboxylic Acids?
Absence seizures and complex partial seizures.
This type of epileptic drug acts by reducing the propagation of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. It may have an effect on calcium influx into neurons.
Succimides
How are Succimides active?
Orally
Whate are the side effects of Succimides?
Drowsiness, Restlessness, Anxiety, Agitation
What type of seizures do Succimides treat?
This is the drug of first choice for treating absence seizures.
Whate are the three Benzodizapines used in tx of epilepsy?
Lorazepam
Clonazepam
Diazepam
This Benzodizaepine is used to treat status epilipticus
Lorazepam
This Benzodiazepine is used to treat refractory absence seizures
Clonazepam
This Benzodiazepine is used as an adjunct in convulsive disorders
Diazepam
This barbiturate is used in treatment of tonic-clonic and absence seizures.
Mephobarbital