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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
this drug is used for most forms of epilepsy except absence seizures. what is its mechanism of action? significant side effects?
phenytoin. inhibition of voltage gated Na channels. bone marrow and hepatic function are affected thus necessitating withdrawal
this drug is used for all types of epilepsy except absence seizures, but it is particularly useful for GTC's, both simple and complex partial. side effects?
carbamazepine. aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis.
this drug treats partial and generalized seizures including absence. mechanism of action? side effects? drug interactions?
valproic acid. unclear. fatal hepatotoxicity, teratogenic. inhibits its own metabolism, displaces phenytoin from plasma proteins.
what are the three benzodiazepines and what are they used to treat?
diazepam for status epilepticus. clonazepam and clorazepate for long term abscence, myoclonic, akinetic, and atonic seizures.
what is the mechanism of action for benzodiazepams? side effects?
potentiates GABAa receptor function. low incidence of toxicity, but additive or synergistic effects with other sedative hypnotics.
this drug treats GTC's, partial, and febrile seizures. mechanism of action? drug interactions?
phenobarbitol. potentiates GABAa receptor function. Due to P450 activation, additive or synergistic interaction with other CNS depressants, esp. alcohol.
this is the drug of choice for absence seizures. mechanism of action? side effects? interactions?
ethosuximide. inhibits voltage gated Ca channels. SLE, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, lekopenia, pancytopenia. metabolism is inhibited by valproate. note it does not bind plasma proteins
this is used to treat infantile spasms. mechanism of action? route of administration?
corticotropin or ACTH. glucocorticoid mediated decrease in the neuronal excitability of the hippocampus. IM.
this drug is an add on for partial and secondarily generalized seizures in adults. mechanism? interactions?
gabapentin. increases GABA release by an unknown mechanism. no known interactions probably due to the fact that it does not bind plasma protein
this drug is an add-on therapy for partial seizures in adults. mechanism? interactions?
lamotrigine. inhibits voltage gated Na channels. metabolism induced by phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbitol, and primidone; it decrease valproate levels.
why is early diagnosis of seizures important?
seizures are autocatalytic
when is polytherapy useful with AED's?
when the drugs have different mechanisms of action, few side effects, low potential for drug interactions
why must the use of AED's be tapered when ceasing use?
withdrawal will occur due to addiction as well as tolerance to the drugs actions (thus a seizure may occur).
should pregnant women be treated with AED's?
depends upon the person. some drugs have teratogenic effects, but a seizure may be worse for the baby
discuss the kinetics of phenytoin
the initial dose follows first order kinetics, but will later switch to saturation (0 order kinetics) at a dose that is variable for each person.
describe autoinduction, and what drug will do this?
the half life of the drug decreases following continuous therapy. carbamazepine
what is the main clinical limitation with benzodiazepines?
tolerance to anticonvulsive action of the drug
what does vigabatrin treat? mechanism? kinetics and interactions? side effects?
partial seizures and secondary generalized seizures. irreversible inhibition of GABA transaminase. no metabolism and does not bind plasma protein, it decreases plasma concentrations. psychiatric symptoms including depression and psychosis.
this medication is an add on for partial seizures in adults with multiple and poorly understood mechanisms.
this add on for partial generalized seizures in adults is a GABA uptake inhibitor.
this drug is used to treat partial seizures, has an unknown mechanism of action, and may have some behavioral side effects.
this drug is used to treat partial seizures with an unknown mechanism and psychiatric side effects as well as many, many others.
this drug is used only for refractory partial seizures... mechanism? side effects?
felbamate. NMDA receptor antagonist. fatal aplastic anemia and liver failure.