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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mechanism to treat partial onset seizures
inactivating Na channels
enhance action of GABA
mechanism to treat generalized seizures
inhibit Ca channels
most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant
carbamazepine
mechanism of axn of phenytoin
inhibit Na channels
nonlinearity elematnion kinetic association with which drug
phenytoin
acute side effects of phenytoin
cerebellar/vestibular toxicity - nystagmus and gait instability
cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension
chronic side effects of phenytoin
gingival hyperplasia
peripheral neuropathy
mechanism of axn of carbamazepine
inhibit Na channels
may worsen generalized onset seizures if this drug is given
carbamazepine
side effects of carbamazepine
diplopia
asplastic anemia
SIADH with hyponatremia
two uses of carbamazepine
trigeminal neuralgia
partial onset seizure
mechanism of axn of phenobarbital
increaes GABA-A receptor mediated current
half life is phenobarbital
96 hours
side effects of phenobarbital
sedation
slowed mentation
occasionally paradoxical hyperactivity in children
medication used to treat essential tremor
primidone
mechanism of axn of vaproic acid
prolonged recovery of Na channels
reduces Ca (T) current
inhibits GABA degradative enzymes
this drug can displace phenytoin from albumin resulting in phenytoin toxicity with normal blood levels of phenytoin
valproic acid
why are blood level of phenytoin normal if toxicity is present
because they measure phenytoin bound to albumin, need to measure free phenytoin
treatments used with valproic acid
partial onset seizures
generalized onset seizures
manic-depressive illness
side effects of valproic acid
tremor
weight gain
fatal fulminate hepatitis - check liver enzymes
which anticonvulsant should liver enzymes be constantly checked
valproic acid
exclusively used in the treatment of status epilepticus
benzodiazepines
abruptly stopping this medication can actually result in withdrawal seizures
benzodiazepines
list two benzos
diazepam
lorazepam
mechanism of axn of benzodiazepines
enhancement of GABA-A mediated synaptic inhibition
treatment of abscence seizures
ethosuximide
mechanism of axn of ethosuximide
inhibit Ca (T) channels
4 new anticonvulsants
Lamotrigine
Levitiracetam
Topiramate
Gabapentin
mechanism of axn of lamotrigine
inhibit Na channel
may also inhibit glutamate release
which drug greatly increases the plasma concentration of lamotrigine
mechanism
Valproic acid
inhibition of lucuronidation
drug of choice for seizures during pregnancy
Lamotrigine
disadventage of lamotrigine
takes 4 weeks to reach therapuetic range
one advantage of Levitiracetam over lamotrigine
reaches therapeutic range much sooner
should be used with caution in patients with underlying depression
levitiracetam
mechanism of axn of topiramate
Na channel inhibitor
enhance GABA current
limits action of glutamate receptor AMPA-kainate
decreases estradiol concentrations, thereroe women may need higher doses of oral contraceptives with this drug
topiramate
side effects of topiramate
also weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - numbness and tingling
confusion
weight loss
kidney stones
drug of choice for the pain and paresthesias associated with peripheral neuropathy
Gabapentin
promotes non-vesicular release of GABA
gabapentin