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52 Cards in this Set

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How do most cytotoxic agents work?
Disrupt processes related to the synthesis of DNA; Block mitosis
What are cell-cycle phase specific drugs?
Effective only during a specific phase of the cell cycle
Schedule Dependant Drugs
What are cell-phase nonspecific drugs?
Affect cells during any phase of the cell cycle
Phase-nonspecific drugs can't injure G0 cells.
T or F
False
Can injure G0 cells
Why is it hard for G0 cells to be damaged?
Time to Repair drug-induced damage
Dosages for anticancer agents must be individualized and the timing of administration may vary with the protocol being followed.
T or F
True
Should a person exercise precautions when handling anticancer agents?
Yes, drugs are mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic
What do alkylating agents do?
Alkylation of DNA by forming a covalent bond with a specific nitrogen atom in guanine
What are bifunctional alkylating agents able to do that monofunctional agents cannot?
Form DNA cross links
Are alkylating agents cell-phase specific?
No, alkylation reaction can take place at any time
What causes drug resistance of alkylating agents?
Increased production of enzymes that repair DNA
What is the prototype nitrogen mustard?
Cyclophosphamide
What type of alkylating agent is Cyclophasphamide?
Bifunctional
Cyclophasphamide is a pro-drug converted to its active form in the liver.
T or F
True
How is Cyclophasphamide administered?
PO as well as IV
What is a unique attribute of the Nitrosoureas?
Highly lipophilic, Can cross BBB
What is the prototype of the Nitrosoureas?
Carmustine
How is carmustine administered?
Topical (Implantable wafer in brain)
IV
Is carmustine bifunctional?
Yes
What does platinum-containing anticancer agents do?
Produce cross links in DNA like bifunctional agents.
What is the prototype of the platinum-containing agents?
Cisplatin
Other platinum containing agents end in _____.
-platin
What are the additional adverse effects of Cisplatin?
Emetogenic
Toxicity to the ear
What is the mechanism of action for the antimetabolites?
Resemble natural metabolites that disrupt critical metabolic processes
Are antimetabolites cell-phase specific? If so, what phase?
S-phase specific
What is Methotrexate?
Folic Acid Analog
What makes a folic acid analog work?
Blocking the conversion of folic acid to its active form
What is the prototype folic acid analog?
Methotrexate
What drug is usually given with methotrexate to save normal cells?
Leucovorin, Permits normal cells to synthesize folic acid
Failure to administer leucovorin in the right dose at the right time with Methotrexate therapy can be lethal.
T or F
True
All Pyrimidine Analogs are ___.
Pro-Drugs
What are the Pyrimidine Analogs?
Cytarabine
Fluorouracil
What is a unique adverse effect of Fluorouracil?
Palmar-Planter Erythrodysesthesia
All Purine Analogs are _____.
Pro-drugs
What is the prototype purine analog?
Mercaptopurine
What phase is all purine and pyrimidine analogs specific to?
S-phase specific
How are all the antitumor antibiotics administered?
Parentally
What are the adverse effects of the anthracyclines?
Cardiotoxicity
Delayed Cardiotoxicity
What drug can help to reduce the chance of developing cardiotoxicity with the anthracyclines?
Dexrazoxane
What drug can help improve symptoms of cardiomyopathy from anthracyclines?
ACE inhibitors
What is the prototypic anthracycline?
Doxorubicin
What phase do mitotic inhibitors work in?
M-phase
What group of drugs are mitotic inhibitors?
Vinca Alkaloids
What are the two Vinca Alkaloids?
Vincristine
Vinblastine
What are the adverse effects of Vincristine?
Peripheral Neuropathy with Bone marrow sparing
What are the adverse effects of Vinblastine?
Bone marrow suppressing without Peripheral Neuropathy
What phase do the Taxanes work in?
Late G2 phase
What is the prototypic taxane?
Paclitaxel
What are the adverse effects of paclitaxel?
Hypersensitivity reactions
Bone Marrow Suppression
Peripheral Neuropathy
Bradycardia
Alopecia
How does asparaginase work?
Deprives cells of asparagine needed to synthesize proteins
What type of cancer is asparaginase used for?
Leukemic Lymphoblasts
What phase does asparaginase work in?
Phase G1