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35 Cards in this Set

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What is serum?
The fluid phase that remains in clotted blood or plasma.
What part of blood do antibodies reside?
the Serum
How heavy is IgG normally?
150,000 Da.
Digestion of IgG with Papain produces:
3 fragments: 2 Fab, 1 Fc
Digestion of IgG with Pepsin produces:
1 F(ab')2.
Fc is digested into pieces
What does mercaptoethanol reduction of the disulfide bonds in IgG show?
That there are 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains.
how much do the light and heavy chains of IgG weigh?
Heavy = 50 kDa

Light = 25 kDa
What is multiple myeloma?
Unregulated proliferation of plasma cells that produce tons of homogenous antibody.
What are bence-jones proteins?
extra light chains secreted by myeloma cells in cancer patients.
How many types of light chains are there? What are they?
2; Kappa and Lambda
How many types of Heavy chains are there, what are they?
5;

IgG, IgM, IgD, IgA, IgE
Which isotypes have subclasses and how many?
IgG - 4 subclasses


IgA - 2 subclasses
What is the molecular unit of an antibody?
an Immunoglobulin domain with an intramolecular disulfide bond.
Characteristics of the Ig Domain:
100 residues
1 intramolecular disulfide bond


(60 residues per loop)

THE BUILDING BLOCK OF THE ANTIBODY
What type of structure are Ig domains?
2ndary structure = beta pleated sheets.
How many CDRs are in
-each variable domain
-each antibody
3 per domain, so 6 per antibody.
What does each immunoglob domain consist of?
2 B-sheets stabilized by a disulfide bond. (from her notes)
What, structurally, are the variable regions of Ig domains?
3 Loops between beta sheets that show considerable variation in A.A. sequence.
which contributes more to antigen binding usually, heavy or light variable regions?
heavy
4 Functions of Immunoglobulins:
1. Precipitation/neutralization
2. Activation of complement
3. Activation of ADCC by NK cells
4. Opsonization for incr. phagocytosis
Which antibodies can exist as multimers?
IgA and IgM
Which is the most abundant Ab in serum?
IgG
Which antibodies activate complement?
IgG, IgM
Which Ab cross the placenta?
IgG
Which antibody is an opsonin?
IgG
which cell is IgM expressed on as a membrane molecule?
mature B cells
How does IgM exist in serum?
Pentamer
Which Abs have the J chain
IgM, IgA
Predominant Ab in mucosal secretions and breast milk:
IgA
Ab responsible for allergy:
IgE
Which are the first-secreted antibodies in an immune response?
IgM
which Ab are present on the mature B cell membrane?
IgM, IgD
3 types of Antigenic Determinants on Ab:
1. Isotypic (what class of Ab it is)
2. Allotypic (diffnces btwn species)
3. Idiotypic (diffnces of Variable regions)
2 Ab cross mother's epithelium to enter breast milk:
IgM, IgA
How/when is Secretory IgA formed?
When: during transport through mucous membrane epithelial cells.

How: Dimer of IgA binds a "poly-Ig receptor" on basolateral membrane; epithelial cell endocytoses it; Transport to endothelial surface; cleavage of IgA with secretory component