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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 antibiotic cell wall inhibitors?
penicillin, cephalosporins, carbipenems, vancomycin
What does penicillin bind?
PBP
What does penicillin kill?
all gram (+) and capsulated bacteria
What are the major side effects of penicillin?
anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, alopecia, photosensitivity
What is the difference between penicillin and oxa, cloxa, dicloxa, nafi "cillin"?
bulkier R ring than penicillin
Why does a blukier R group matter?
penicillinase can't bind to the bulkier R group so the antibiotic won't get deactivated
Would you use naficillin to kill gram (+) and capsulated bacteria?
no, don't use a gun to kill a mosquito
How is ampicillin different from amoxicillin?
amp- deactivated by P450
amo- activated by P450
Who do you give ampicillin to?
adults
Who do you give amoxicillin to?
children
What are the side effects of amoxicillin?
liver failure
What is ampicillin and amoxicillin used to kill?
gram +, capsulated, e.coli
What is ticarcillin used for?
to kill pseudomonas
What are the 2 first generation cephalosporins?
cephalexin, cefazolin
What are the 2 second generation cephalosporins?
cefuroxime, cefotetan
What are the 2 third generation cephalosporins?
ceftriaxone, cefotaxime
What are the 4th generation cephalosporin?
cefepime
What are the 2 carbapenems?
imipenem and cilastatin
How do imipenem and cilastatin work?
inhibit renal dihydropeptidase
How does vancomycin work?
inhibits cell wall mucopeptide formation (D-ala-D-ala)
What can vancomycin be used to treat?
all gram (+)
What is the major side effect of vancomycin?
Red Man syndrome
How do you treat red man syndrome?
lower infusion and pretreat with antihistamines
What protein synthesis inhibitors bind the 30s protein?
AT- aminoglucosides, tetracyclins
What protein synthesis inhibitors bind the 50s protein?
CELL- chloramphenicol, erithomycin, clindamycin, linezolid
What are the 3 aminoglucosides?
gentamicin, amikacin, streptomycin
What are the major side effects of aminoglucosides?
ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
How do the tetracyclins work?
inhibit binding of amino-acyl-tRNA to the mRNA ribosome complex
What are the 3 tetracyclins?
doxicycline, minocycline, demeclocycline
What is doxicycline used to treat?
lyme, tularemia, francicella
What is minocycline used to treat?
acne
What is demeclocycline used to treat?
SIADH- is destroys the kidney (nephrontoxic)
What are the major side effects of tetracyclins?
ototox, nephrotox, tooth discoloration (< 8y)
How does chloramphenicol work?
inhibits peptide bond at 50s
What are the major side effects of chloramphenicol?
bone marrow suppression, aplastic anemia
What are the 3 macrolides?
erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin
How do the macrolides work?
inhibit translocations by binding 23s of 50s
What do the macrolides treat?
mycoplasma, legionella, chlamydia, neisseria
How does clindamycin work?
inhibits elongation factor of 50s
What does clindamycin treat?
anaerobic infections
How does trimethoprim work?
inhibits DHF
What is trimethoprim used for?
in combination with sulfonamides- used for recurrent UTIs, shigella, salmonella, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
What are the major side effects of trimethoprim?
megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia
What do all the floroquinolones have in common?
all have the last name "floxacin"
How do the floroquinolones work?
inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase 2)
What are the major side effects of the floroquinolones?
tendonitis or tendon rupture and myalgia in kids
What is the floroquinolones used to treat?
gram (-) rods of urinary and GI tracts including pseudomonas, neisseria and some gram (+)
How does metronidazole work?
makes free radicals and toxic metabolites
What does metronidazole treat?
antiprotozoal- GET GAP on the Metro

giardia, entamoeba, trichomonas, gardnerella, anaerobes (below diaphragm)
How does rifampin work?
inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
What does rifampin treat?
TB
What is a side effect of rifampin?
orange body fluids
How does ethambutol work?
obstructs cell wall formation by disrupting arabinogalactan synthesis
What is ethambutol used for?
TB treatment
What is the major side effect of ethambutol
optic neuritis, red-green color blindness are the major ones
What drugs are used to treat TB?
INH-SPIRE

isoniazid, strepotmycinm pyrazinamide, rifampin, ethambutol
How does pyrazinamide work?
stops growth by inhibiting fatty acid aynthetase
How does isoniazid work?
inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid
What is amphotericine B used for?
antifungal
How does amphotericine B work?
binds ergosterol and causes perforation of the cell wall
What are the side effects of amphotericine?
hypotension, fever and chills, flebitis if IV
What is nystatin used for?
antifungal
How does nystatin work?
binds to ergosterol
How is nystatin applied?
topical for diaper rash or vaginal candidiasis or "swish and swallow" for oral candidiasis
What are the azoles used for?
antifungal
How do the azoles work?
prevent the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol by inhibiting fungal P450