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41 Cards in this Set

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Name 5 classes of antibiotics
1. Aminoglycosides
2. Cephalosporins
3. Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones
4. Vancomycin
5. Macrolides
How to ABs work?
1. Cell lysis
2. alter cell membrane permeability
3. inhibit protein synthesis
4. genetic alteration
4 Problems with ABs
1. resistance
2. superinfection
3. anaphylaxis
4. toxicity
5. ABs in food supply
Example Aminoglycosides
Gentamycin
Tobramycin
Amikacin
Aminoglycoside Action
Inhibit Protein Synthesis
Aminoglycoside indications
1. Life threatening conditions, infection with Klebsiella and Pseudomonas
Aminoglycoside contraindications
1. People w/CNS disease such as Myasthenia Gravis, Parkinson's
2. Use with muscle relaxants (e.g. gastric lavage in surgery)
Aminoglycosides side effects
Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity, Damage to 8th cranial nerve
Aminoglycoside Nursing considerations
1. push fluids to avoid toxicity (2-3000ml)
2. Watch for ototoxicity signs
3. Get peaks and troughs
4. Know that it is teratogenic; crosses the placenta
Aminoglycoside administration
IV, unless
1. prior to colonoscopy or other GI procedure
2. alcoholics to avoid encephalopathy
--where it is given p.o.
Aminoglycoside "word"
synergistic
frequent way to recognize a cephalosporin drug
will have "cef" or "kef" in the name.
Cephalosporin MOA (Mode of Action)
Alter cell wall, produces cell leakage
Cephalosporin Indications
Prophylactically for:
Appy, GB removal, hip replacement

Also for severe UTIs
Cephalosporin Contraindications
PCN anaphylaxis
< 1 mo.
Cephalosporin side effects
1. bleeding (3rd generation)
2. secondary infections
3. No drinking alcohol
Cephalosporin NRSG Considerations
1. bleeding;
2. secondary infections;
3. No drinking alcohol
Cephalosporin route
IV
Cephalosporin "words"
cross-sensitivity
generations
Cephalosporin OD
seizures
Persons susceptible to Cephalosporin OD
kids, elderly, anorexic
Cause of Antibiotic Associated Colitis
C. difficile
(freq. associated with cephalosporins)
Problems with cephalosporins
1. allergic rxn
2. superinfection
3. side effects
4. AB associated colitis
Quinolone/Fluoroquinolone examples
cipro(floxin)
penetrex
trovafloxin
(drugs with "floxin" in name are usually quinolones or fluoroquinolones)
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones
MOA
inhibit protein synthesis by DNA alteration
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones indications
GC, PID, Community-acquired UTIs.
Prophylactic for anthrax
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones
side effects
1. ototoxicity
2. nephrotoxicity
3. phototoxicity
4. tendoninitis, esp Achilles tendon
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones
route
IV and PO are absorbed nearly equally.
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones
contraindications
1. antacid use (decreases effectiveness of AB)
2. anticoagulant use (reduces anticoag properties)
; 3. theophylline (increases side effects)
4. trovafloxin -> liver failure; (14 day dose at most) 5. age < 18
Vancomycin MOA
inhibits cell wall synthesis
Vancomycin indications
MRSA
bone infections
c. dificile
septicemia
Vancomycin NRSG considerations
very specific levels must be achieved
watch for red man syndrome
Vancomycin -- examples
Vancomycin
Liphocin
Vancoccin
Vancoled
Vancomycin route
IV w/pump
Cause of Red Man Syndrome
too rapid infusion of Vancomycin; caused by peripheral vasodilation-- considered to be a type of anaphylaxis
Macrolides: examples
Erythromycin, Azithromycin
Macrolide MOA
inhibit protein synthesis via DNA alteration
Macrolide Indications
1. Legionnaire & Lyme
2. Whooping Cough, Diptheria
3. STDs when other drugs have failed
4. Diabetic GI pareisis
Macrolide Contraindications
History of liver disorder
Macrolide side effects
CP; joint pain; nephritis; gastric-->N&V & gas
Macrolide administration route
Usually PO, some IV