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24 Cards in this Set

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Penicillin G aka __________
admin?
Use?
Benzylpenicillin
IV (unstable in stomach acid)

The drug of choice for treating

Aerobic G(+) infections
Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Enterococcus

Anaerobic G(+) infections
e.g., Clostridium, Actinomyces

G(-) cocci
Neisseria meningitidis

Spirochetes
e.g., Leptospira, Treponem
B-Lactamase-Resistant Penicillins (5)
(Anti-staphylococcal Penicillins)

Use?
Methicillin (discontinued in USA)
Nafcillin
Oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin (Isoxazolyl penicillins )

Resistant to staphylococcal b-lactamase

Inactive against G(-) rod and anaerobes
compared to standard penicillins

Indicated for infections by b-lactamase-producing staphylococci
Penicillin G aka __________
admin?
Use?
Benzylpenicillin
IV (unstable in stomach acid)

The drug of choice for treating

Aerobic G(+) infections
Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Enterococcus

Anaerobic G(+) infections
e.g., Clostridium, Actinomyces

G(-) cocci
Neisseria meningitidis

Spirochetes
e.g., Leptospira, Treponem
B-Lactamase-Resistant Penicillins (5)
(Anti-staphylococcal Penicillins)

Use?
Methicillin (discontinued in USA)
Nafcillin
Oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin (Isoxazolyl penicillins )

Resistant to staphylococcal b-lactamase

Inactive against G(-) rod and anaerobes
compared to standard penicillins

Indicated for infections by b-lactamase-producing staphylococci
Penicillin G aka __________
admin?
Use?
Benzylpenicillin
IV (unstable in stomach acid)

The drug of choice for treating

Aerobic G(+) infections
Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Enterococcus

Anaerobic G(+) infections
e.g., Clostridium, Actinomyces

G(-) cocci
Neisseria meningitidis

Spirochetes
e.g., Leptospira, Treponem
B-Lactamase-Resistant Penicillins (5)
(Anti-staphylococcal Penicillins)

Use?
Methicillin (discontinued in USA)
Nafcillin
Oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin (Isoxazolyl penicillins )

Resistant to staphylococcal b-lactamase

Inactive against G(-) rod and anaerobes
compared to standard penicillins

Indicated for infections by b-lactamase-producing staphylococci
Extended Spectrum Antiobiotcs
Help
Extended spectrum antibiotics
3 groups
Aminopenicillins
Carboxypenicillins
Ureidpenicillins
2 drugs/group

Characteristics/Use?
Aminopenicillins
ampicillin, amoxicillin

Carboxypenicillins
carbenicillin, ticarcillin

Ureidopenicillins
Piperacillin, mezlocillin

Enhanced penetration of G- outer membrane compared to normal penicillin

Can be use in combo with B-lactamase inhibitors to extend their antibac spectrum
Aminopenicillins

Use?
Admin?
Notables?
Ampicillin, amoxicillin

-the preferred B-lactam antibiotics for treating penicillin resistant penumococci

-oral admin

-treats UTI, sinus, otitis, lower RTI

Ampicillin only, is effective against shigellosis
Carboxypenicillins

Use?
Admin?
Carbenicillin, Ticarcillin

IV/IM
treat pseudomonas aeruginosa
Ureidopenicillins

Use?
Admin?
Peperacillin, Mezlocillin

IV/IM
treat pneumonia d/t pseudomonas aeruginosa
Penicillin Allergy
-specific penicillin rxns (5)
rash, serum sickness like run, rash, seizures in renal pts
Naficillin: neutropenia
Oxacillin: hepatitis
Methicillin: interstitial nephritis
Ampicillin & Amoxicillin: non-allergic skin rxns
Pro & Cons
Penicillin G & V
G & V
pro: active against G+ and - cocci, anaerobes
cons: inactive against G- rods,hydrolyzed by B lactamases
B lactamase resistant penicillins (5)
nafcillin, methicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin
pros: resistant to staphylococcal B lactamase
cons: inactive against G- anaerobes, eterococci
Extended spectrum penicillins (6)
ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, mezlocillin
pro: improved activity against G- organisms
cons: hydrolyzed by B lactamase
1st gen Cephalosporins (4)

characteristics?
noteables?
Cefazolin
Cephalexin
Cephalothin
Cephradine
-very active against G+ cocci, little against G-
-renal excretion

Cefazolin - drug of choice for surgical
2nd Generation (5)

characteristics?
Noteables?
cefactor
cefonicid
cefuroxide
cefprozil
ceforanide
-extended activity against G-, less G+ action compared to 1st generation
-renal excretion

Cefuroxime- good CNS penetration
Cephamycins- good against anaerobes
Cephamycins (2)
cefoxitin
cefotetan
3rd Generation (7)
characteritics?
noteables?
Cefoperazone
Cefouxime
Ceftazidime
Ceftizoxime
Ceftriaxone
Cefixime
Cefpodoxime
-extended activity against G-, little activity against G+
-more resistant to B lactamase
-many can cross BBB
-renal excretion

Ceftriazone and Cefotaxime treat meningitis, billiard excretion
Ceftazidime and Cefoperazone are active against Psudomonas Aeruginosa
4th Gen (1)

characteristics?
cefepime
-very active against G- and G+ organisms
-more resistant to hydrolysis by B lactamases

-highly active against haemophilus and nisseria
-penetrates into CSF
-renal excretion
cephalosporins adverse reactions
hypersensitivity rxns, 5-10% cross allergenicity runs between penicillins and cephalosporins, its with anaphylaxis to penicillin SHOULD NOT take cephalopsporins

-renal tox
-injection irritation
Cephalosporins adverse reactions
Drugs with Methylthiotetrazole ring (4), rxn?
Drugs with methylthitetrazole ring can cause severe disulfiram like reactions (must avoid alcohol), bleeding disorders and hypothrombinemia

I met a man with a perfect tan.
Cefamandole
Cefotetan
Cefmetazole
Cefoperazone
Disulfiram like reactions, symptoms?
flushing
nausea
palpitation
vomiting
chest pain
vertigo
hypotension

occur when cephalosporins are taken with alcohol