• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How is Penicillin G administered?
IV
How is Penicillin V administered?
orally
What is the mx of action of penicillins?
1. binds penicillin binding proteins
2. blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan
3. activates autolysis
What is penicillin used to treat?
S. pneumoniae
S. pyogenes
Actinomyces
syphillis
What is the toxicity of penicillin?
hypersensitivity
hemolytic anemia
What are the beta-lactamase resistant penicillins (3) and what makes them resistant?
methicillin
nafcillin
dicloxacillin

bulky R group
What are methicillin, nafcillin, and dicloxacillin used for?
S. aureus
What is the toxicity of methicillin?
interstitial nephritis
What are the aminopenicillins? (2)
ampicillin, amoxicillin
What are ampicillin and amoxicillin used for?
HELPSS with enterococci:

H. influenzae
E. coli
L. monocytogenes
P. mirabilis
Salmonella
Shigella
What advantage does amoxicillin have over ampicillin?
Greater oral bioavailability
What is the toxicity of ampicillin/amoxicillin?
rash
pseudomembranous colitis
What are the 3 anti-pseudomonals?
ticarcillin
carbenicillin
piperacillin

TCP = Takes Care of Pseudomonas
What is typically added to ticarcillin, carbenicillin, or piperacillin?
clavulanic acid
What are 3 beta-lactamase inhibitors?
clavulanic acid
sulbactam
tazobactam

= protective CAST
What is the mx of action of cephalosporins?
inhibit cell wall synthesis
resistant to penicillinases
What organisms are not covered by cephalosporins?
They're LAME:

Listeria
Atypicals (chlamydia, mycoplasma)
MRSA
Enterococci
What are the 1st generation cephalosporins? (2)
cefazolin
cephalexin
What are the 1st-gen cephalosporins used for?
PEcK:

Proteus mirabilis
E. coli
Klebsiella pneumoniae
What are the 2nd-gen cephalosporins used for?
HEN PEcKS

Haemophilus influenzae
Enterobacter aerogenes
Neisseria

Proteus
E. coli
Klebsiella
Serratia marcescens
What are the 2nd-generation cephalosporins? (3)
cefoxitin
cefaclor
cefuroxime
What are the 3rd generation cephalosporins? (3)
ceftriaxone
cefotaxime
ceftazidime
What is the 4th generation cephalosporin and what is it used for?
cefepime

against Pseudomonas and Gram-pos organisms
What is ceftriaxone used for?
gram-negative resistant meningitis and gonorrhea
What is ceftazidime used for?
pseudomonas
What is the mechanism of aztreonam?
monobactam inhibiting cell wall synth by binding PBP3
What is aztreonam synergistic with?
aminoglycosides
What is aztreonam used against?
gram-neg bacilli
penicillin-allergic patients
renal insufficient patients
What is the mx of action of imipenem and meropenem?
broad-spec carbapenem, inhibits peptidoglycan cross linking
Why is imipenem always adminsitered with cilastatin?
to decreased inactivation of the drug in renal tubules (cilastatin is a inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase I)
What is imipenem/meropenem used for?
gram-positive cocci
gram-neg bacilli

used only in life-threatening infections
What are the toxicities of imipenem and meropenem?
GI distress
skin rash
CNS toxicity (seizures) at high plasma levels
How does vancomycin work?
inhibits cell wall mucopeptide formation by binding D-ala-D-ala portion of precursors
What is vancomycin used for?
Gram positive bacteria only
multi-drug resistant organisms
S. aureus, enterococci, C. diff
pseudomembranous colitis
What are vancomycin's toxicities?
NOT many problems usually

Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Thrombophlebitis
diffuse flushing - "red man syndrome" - prevented by antihistamines and slow infusion
What confers vancomycin resistance?
AA chance of D-ala-D-ala to D-ala-D-lac