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26 Cards in this Set

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Antibiotics
Antimicrobial substances produced by microorganisms.
microorganisms
Antimicrobial substances produced by ___________.
Major Genera
(sources of true antibiotics)
1. Penicillium (fungi)
2. Cephalosporin (fungi)
3. Streptomyces (actinomycetes)
4. Micromonospora (actinomycetes)
5. Bacillus (Gram + bacteria)
1. Penicillium (fungi)
2. Cephalosporin (fungi)
3. Streptomyces (actinomycetes)
4. Micromonospora (actinomycetes)
5. Bacillus (Gram + bacteria)
What are the major genera of antibiotics?
fungi
What type of organism is Penicillium?
fungi
What type of organism is Cephalosporin?
actinomycetes
What type of organism is Streptomyces?
actinomycetes
What type of organism is Micromonospora?
gram + bacteria
What type of bacteria is Bacillus? (+ or -)
Bacteriostatic
Inhibit the growth of bacteria.
Bacteriocidal
Kills bacteria
Narrow-spectrum
Affect only a select group of microbes.

Usually preferred

don't want to kill normal flora.
Broad-spectrum
Affect large numbers of bacteria (gram + and -)

kills normal flora
Superinfection
Overgrowth by a resistant organism.

takes place in broad-spectrum

Must finish all medication or this will happen.
Modes of action
1. Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis
2. Inhibition of protein synthesis
3. Injury to the plasma membrane
4. Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
5. Inhibition of the synthesis of essential metabolites.
1. Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis
2. Inhibition of protein synthesis
3. Injury to the plasma membrane
4. Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
5. Inhibition of the synthesis of essential metabolites.
What are the modes of action? OR How do microbial agents work?
Mechanism of resistance
1. Ability to destroy the antimicrobial agent
2. Prevent penetration of the antimicrobial agent (not allowing to bind)
3. Alteration of target structure
4. Active transport (efflux pumps)
1. Ability to destroy the antimicrobial agent
2. Prevent penetration of the antimicrobial agent (not allowing to bind)
3. Alteration of target structure
4. Active transport (efflux pumps)
What are the mechanisms of resistance against antimicrobial agents?
efflux pumps
In the mechanisms of resistance against antimicrobial agents, what are the pumps called that are involved in active transport?
Control of resistance
1. Administer effective dose and finish the complete dosage.
2. Avoid using outdated, weakened antibiotics
3. Eliminate indiscriminate use
4. Combined therapy: two or more antibiotics given simultaneously.
1. Administer effective dose and finish the complete dosage.
2. Avoid using outdated, weakened antibiotics
3. Eliminate indiscriminate use
4. Combined therapy: two or more antibiotics given simultaneously.
How do we hope to control resistance?
Administer
__________ effective dose and finish the complete dosage.
Combined therapy

Beta lactamase
_______ __________: two or more antibiotics given simultaneously.

synergistic eg. penicillin and streptomycin
Avoid antagonistic: eg. Penicillin and Tetracycline.

Combine an antibiotic with a __-_________ inhibitor
Augmentin
What is the Beta lactamase inhibitor used to combine antibiotics?
Augmentin
Amoxicillin combined with Potassium clavulanate.
b-lactam rings
What do all cillins have in common?