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20 Cards in this Set

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who discovered antimicrobials
alexander fleming
what does bactericidal mean
killing of bacteria.

if patient is immunodeficient you have to KILL the bacteria cuz they can't themself
what does bacteriostatic mean
inhibiting bacterial multiplication.
this type of antibiotic only stops bacterial growth; in order to KILL, the host's immune defenses have to work.
what does a broad-spectrum antimicrobial do
it's active against MANY TYPES of microorganisms.


if used too much it'll confer resistance
whats a single-spectrum antimicrobial?
one that's active against only one class of microorganisms.
Factors of Consideration for choosing an antibiotic:
-Organism susceptibility
-Antibiotic (Action, toxicity, cost)
-Patient (8 points)
-Antimicrobial Primary site of action
3 general points doctors consider re: antibiotics
Action - mode of action on cell, microorganism class its effective for, areas of body can/can't be used in

Toxicity - if its toxic to the patient
Cost
Antimicrobials that inhibit cell wall synthesis
Beta Lactam Group
-Penicillin
-Synthetics - all end in 'cillin'
Cephalosporins

Monobactams
Carbapenems
Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins
Glycopeptides - Vancomycin
Bacitracin
How do antimicrobials that inhibit cell wall synthesis operate?
Effective during cell division only

-affect peptidoglycan layer formation

-cell wall disruption = integrity disruption; BACTERICIDAL
Beta-lactamase
enzyme which breaks down the beta-lactam ring in penicillins and cephalosporins. now produced by many bacteria, enabling them to resist antimicrobial agents.
How to overcome the beta-lactamase resistance of bacteria
combine beta-lactam antibiotic (penicillin or cephalosporin)with a beta-lactamase inhibitor like Clavulanic acid or sulbactam
Clavulanic acid and Sulbactam:
agents that confer resistence to beta-lactamase when combined with antimicrobial agent (penicillins or cephalosphorins)
antimicrobials that inhibit cell membrane synthesis:
Polymyxin
Nystatin
Amphotericin B
Clotrimazole
Fluconazole
Miconazole
Ketoconazole
How do antimicrobials that inhibit cell membrane synthesis act?
don't differentiate well between microorganisms and mammalian cells, so very TOXIC and not prescirbed much
Antimicrobials that inhibit metabolic pathways
Cotrimoxazole
Sulfonamide
Isoniazid
Para-aminosalicylic acid
5-Fluorocytosine
Cotrimoxazole:
-Mode of action
-Against what
-Also called
-Inhibits metabolic pathways
-Gram + and - esp in Urinary tract inf.

Also called Bactrim

-mixture of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim; BACTERICIDAL
antimicrobials that inhibit protein synthesis
Tetracyclines (except Vancomycin)
Aminoglycosides
Chloramphenicol
Lincosamides
Macrolides
blablabla
Whats bad about tetracycline
discolors teeth of fetus/young child

harmful to pregnancy
whats bad about aminoglycosides (what type of antibiotic are they)
they are protein synthesis inhibitors

bactericidal

quite toxic - renal and ototoxic - ear
tetracycline - bacteriostatic or cidal?
static; bacteriostatic.