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32 Cards in this Set

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Penicillin
G+, wimpy G-
Many anaerobes, NOT B. fragilis
Lactamase susceptible,
Bactericidal inhibitor cell wall synthesis
Ampicillin/Amoxicillin
Not Ps. aeruginosa
Broad spectrum
Lactamase susceptible
Amoxi+clavulanic acid = Clavamox
Clavamox lactamase resistant
Bactericidal inhibitor cell wall synthesis
Cloxacillin
and Dicloxacillin, Methicillin
G+
Lactamase resistant
Used on Staph
Cloxacillin - mastitis
Bactericidal inhibitor cell wall synthesis
Ticarcillin, Pipericillin
and Carbenecillin
G- esp Ps aeruginosa and resistant G-
Lactamase susceptible
Ticarcillin+clavulanic acid= Timentin
is lactamse resistant
Pipericillin - last resort drug, $$
Bactericidal inhibitor cell wall synthesis
Cefadroxil, Cephalexin
Weaker G- than 2nd/3rd gen.
Broad spectrum
Oral
Resistant to penicillinases, susceptible to cephalosporinases
MRSA
Bactericidal inhibitor cell wall synthesis
Cefazolin
G- , 1st gen.
Broad spectrum
Useful on anaerobes
Bactericidal inhibitor cell wall synthesis
Ceftiofur
3rd generation (but weaker than other 3rds)
Broad spectrum
Doesn't work on Ps aeruginosa
Used on Pasteurella multocida, P. haemolytica, Arcanobacterium pyogenes in food animals
E.coli in dog UTIs
Bactericidal inhibitor cell wall synthesis
Ceftazidime
3rd gen - reserved for G- resistances
Broad spectrum
Works on Ps aeruginosa
Lactamase resistant
Bactericidal inhibitor cell wall synthesis
Cefpodoxime
3rd generation, for mild-mod skin inf in canines
$$$$
Bactericidal inhibitor of cell wall synthesis
Amikacin
better for G- (reserve this)
Broad spectrum
Streps often resistant
Useful for Ps aeruginosa
Has post antibiotic effect
Bactericidal inhibitor protein synthesis
Gentamicin
Better for G-
Broad spectrum
Streps often resistant
Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity a problem
Post antibiotic effect
Useful on Ps aeruginosa
Bactericidal inhibitor protein synthesis
Neomycin
Broad spectrum
Not as good for G- as amikacin/gentamycin
Good on Staph intermedius
Toxic - so used topically
Post antibiotic effect
1 of 3 in triple antibiotic ointment
Bactericidal inhibitor protein synthesis
Tobramycin
Better for G-
Broad spectrum
Streps are resistant
Opthalmic use
Useful for Ps aeruginosa
Post antibiotic effect
Bactericidal inhibitor protein synthesis
Natural tetracyclines:
Tetracycline
Oxytetracycline
Chlortetracycline
Broad spectrum
Used on Brucella, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia (intracellular pathogens b/c lipophilic)
Multivalent ions (Ca) interfere with absorption, so bind there - good for joint infections
Bacteriostatic inhibitor protein synthesis
Synthetic tetracycline:
Doxycycline
Broad spectrum
All same as other tetras plus Ehrlichia, Haemobartonella and Leptospirosa
More lipophilic & longer lasting than other tetras
Excreted through liver into intestines
Bacteriostatic inhibitor protein synthesis
Erythromycin
G+
Lipophilic
Useful for (susc.) Staph, Campy, Mycopl
Bacteriostatic inhibitor of protein synthesis
Azithromycin
G+, on Mycoplasma esp, works on some G-
Better spectrum than Erythromycin
Better tissue penetration, longer half-life
Bacteriostatic inhibitor protein synthesis (can have bactericidal effects)
Lincomycin
Clindamycin
G+, esp Mycoplasma, anaerobes, clostridia (except C difficile)
Clindamycin absorbed better, fewer side effects
Good on Staph when not resistant
Bacteriostatic inhibitor protein synthesis
Pirlimycin
G+
Good on mammary gland - IMM infusion
Bacteriostatic inhibitor protein synthesis
Tilmicosin
G+
Good on bovine resp dz
Toxic to humans, monkeys, pigs
Bacteriostatic inhibitor protein synthesis
Tylosin
G+
Good on enteric dz in dogs (Campy, Clostridium)
Bacteriostatic inhibitor protein synthesis
Polymyxin B
G-, esp Ps aeruginosa, Staph intermedius
Proteus always resistant
Toxic - used topically
Injected for endotoxin neutralization
No vet formulation
Component of triple antibiotic ointment
Bactericidal inhibitor cell membrane activity
Bacitracin
G+
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Topical only
Component of triple antibiotic ointment
Bactericidal inhibitor cell membrane activity
Nitrofurans
Broad spectrum
No Ps aeruginosa, Proteus
Urinary antiseptic
Topical
Not used in food animals
Bacteriostatic/cidal inhibitor intermediary metabolism
Sulfonamides
(see chart given in class for different kinds)
Broad spectrum
Not good on anaerobes
Prevents folic acid synthesis
Bacteriostatic inhibitor intermediary metabolism (bactericidal if inhibit more than one step in folic acid synthesis "potentiated")
Fluoroquinolones:
Enrofloxacin, Norfloxacin
Marbofloxacin, Difloxacin, Orbifloxacin
Broad spectrum
Lower MIC's for G-
Interferes with DNA gyrase
Post antibiotic effect
Lipophilic
Bactericidal inhibitor n.a. synthesis
Rifampin
G+
Inhibits DNA dependent RNA polymerase
Lipophilic - gets in pus, intracell
Resistant develops quickly
Used almost solely for Rhodococcus equi with erythromycin
Vancomycin
DO NOT USE - LAST RESORT DRUG
G+
Inhibits Cell wall synthesis
Ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone)
Broad spectrum, lower MIC w/ G-
Inhibits DNA gyrase
20% changed to enrofloxacin in dogs
opthalmic ointment
Imipenem (penicillin like)
G+ (mostly)
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Potentially for Rhodococcus equi and Nocardia
Metronidazole
Useful on anaerobic bacteria/protozoa
Not to be used in food animals
Damage bug's DNA
Chloramphenicol
Broad spectrum
Lipophilic
Bacteriostatic inhibitor protein synthesis
Causes aplastic anemia in some people, so not used in food animals
Use on resistant Salmonella