Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/24

Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Penicillin G(acid labile), Penicillin V(acid stable)
Group A beta-hemolytic Strep (S. pyogenes), viridans Strep, meningicoccus (Neisseria meningitidis), Treponema pallidum
ALLERGY
Nafcillin
penicillinase resistant penicillin
ONLY for Staph
Amoxicillin
aminopenicillin
NOT for gram + cocci
Carbenicillin
antipseudomonal and indole + Proteus
Piperacillin
enterobacteria and antipseudomonal
Cefazolin
Cephalexin
First gen. Cephalosporin
more effective for Gram +
used in surgical prophylaxis
Cefuroxime
Second gen. Cephalosporin
increased Gram - activity and less gram +, Bacteroides fragilis, meningitis caused by H. influenzae, antipseudomonal
Cefotaxime
Ceftizoxime
Ceftriaxone
Ceftazimide
Third gen. Cephalosporin
Broad Gram - activity
resistant to β-lactamases
Ceftriaxone: longer T1/2, meningitis, nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis
Ceftazimide: less potent against gram -, increased antipseudomonal
Cefepime
Fourth gen. Cephalosporin
very resistant to β-lactamases
combines gram + and antipseudomonal of best 3rd gen
NOT active against MRSA, B. fragilis, or M. tuberculosis
Meropenem (carbapenem)
highly resistant to β-lactamases
mixed nosocomial infections, anaerobes, P. aeruginosa

Side Effects: nausea and vomiting
Aztreonam (monobactam)
activity resembles aminoglycoside
gram -, poor gram + and anaerobes
Don't see hypersensitivity like other β-lactams
Sulbactam
Clavulanic Acid
clavulanate + amoxicillin (Augmentin)
β-lactamase inhibitors
little antimicrobial antiactivity
Vancomycin
Severe Staph and Step (endocarditis)
synergistic with aminoglycosides against enterococcus and Strep viridans

Side effects: histamine release, thrombophlebitis, ototoxicity
Tetracycline
Doxycycline (preferred in renal impaired)
Mechanism: prevent binding of tRNA at A site of 30S (bacteriostatic)

Clinical Use: broad spectrum (but widespread resistance), gram + > gram - (mostly resistant), mycoplasma, rickettsia, chlamydia, lyme disease

Side Effects: phototoxicity (T>D), permanent staining of teeth in children, Fanconi syndrome w/ outdated tcylcines, pseudomembranous colitis
Aminoglycosides
-Gentamicin
-Tobramycin
-Amikacin
Mechanism: 30S blocks translation (inactivated Genta>Tobra>Amikacin), i.m. and i.v., distributes only to ECV, narrow therapeutic window

Clinical Use: aerobic Gram - bacilli (Amikacin>Tobra>Genta), Proteus, Pseudomonas; synergistic w/ anti-pseudomonal penicillins
Genta: serious nosocomial bt Enterobactericae or Pseudomonas
Amika: when resistance to Genta or Tobra

Side Effects: neuromuscular blockade, "red man" syndrome, ototoxicity (amika>>genta=tobra), nephrotoxicity (genta=amika>tobra)
Macrolides
-Erythromycin
-Clarithromycin
-Azithromycin
Mechanism: binds 50S, only inhibits mammalian mitochondrial protein synthesis (bacteriostatic)

Clinical Use: inactive against gram - bacilli, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, alt. to penicillin for strep and pneumococcal, DOC for C Diptheriae and Legionella (i.v.), in COPD prophylaxis for pneumonia
Clari and Azi more effective for H. influenzae

Side Effects: GI upset, interferes with Cyt P450 metabolism, cholestatic hepatitis
Dapsone (sulfone)
DOC for leprosy
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Cotrimoxazole)
Trimethoprim is structural analog of folic acid selective for bacterial enzyme (bacteriostatic)
Sulfonamides lower amt of dihydrofolate
Combo of two is often bactericidal
Reason for these two combo is cause similar T1/2

Clinical Use: UTI w/ E. Coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter...
DOC for Pneumocystis carinii
Fluoroquinolones
2nd gen: Ciprofloxicin
3rd gen: Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin
Mechanism: inhibit topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase, excellent tissue penetration including bone, brain parenchyma and prostate but low CSF

Clinical Use:
Cipro- aerobic gram - rods, DOC for meningococcal prophylaxis, less gram + and poor anaerobe
3rd gen- more gram +

Side Effects:
Metronizadole
Anearobes, Anaerobes, Anaerobes
extremely broad spectrum, all gram - anaerobes
ineffective against aerobic and facultative anaerobic

Anaerobe coverage (by activity against Bacteroides fragilis):
Metronizadole, Meropenem, ampicillin/clavulinate
Isoniazid
Mechanism: Inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid

Clinical Use: limited to mycobacteria

Side Effects:
Rifampin
Mechanism: binds to bacterial RNA polymerase, always used w/ another drug b/c rapid resistance

Clinical Use: mycobacteria, gram +, and Neisseria; less active against gram -

Side Effects: hepatotoxicity, cyt p450 inducer, GI disturbance and allergy most common
Pyrazinamide
Tubercle bacillus, rapid resistance
Short term (6 month) treatment of TB

Hepatotoxicity, hyperuricemia
Ethambutol
Only effective against Mycobacteria

Side effect is retrocular neuritis