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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A. Paromomycin (Humatin)
B. Iodoquinol (Yodoxin)
C. Nitazoxanide (Crytaz)
D. Chloroquine (Aralen)
E. Metronidazole (Flagyl)
F. Tinadazole (Tindamax)
G. Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) + Sulfadiazine (generic)
Antiprotozoal Drugs
A. Mebendazole (Vermox)
B. Thiobendazole (Mintezol)
C. Pyrantel (Pin-Rid)
D. Ivermectin (Stromectol)
E. Praziquantel (Biltricide)
F. Albendazole (Albenza)
Anthelmintic Drugs:
A. Chloroquine (Aralen)
B. Quinine (generic)
C. Mefloquine (Larium)
D. Primaquine (generic)
E. Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)
Pyrimethamine + Sulfadoxine (Fansidar)
F. Atovaquone + Proquanil (Malarone)
G. Doxycycline (generic. Vibramycin)
Antimalarial Drugs:
Used to treat enteric parasites; poorly absorbed from the GI tract & side- effects limited to GI upsets & diarrhea.
Luminal Amebicides
Paromomycin (Humatin) & Iodoquinol (Yodoxin) are _______________________
Luminal Amebicides
An amino- glycoside antibiotic effective vs amoeba & bacteria; unknown MOA.
Paromomycin (Humatin)
Only for invasive forms of Entamoeba that cause amebic dysentery.
Systemic Amebicides
Chloroquine (Aralen) is a
Systemic Amebicide
This drug acts by concentrating in parasite food vacuole, ↓ polymerization of heme, the breakdown product of hemoglobin, into hemozoin. Heme is higly reactive & causes oxidative damage to the parasite.***
Chloroquine (Aralen):
This drug is used for Amebic dysentery & liver abscess
Used with a luminal amebicide to prevent relapse.
Adverse reactions of this drug in high doeses include hypotension, EKG changes; confusion, psychosis, seizures, Ototoxicity, retinopathy
these drugs are Effective vs enteric & systemic form of the disease
Mixed Amebicides
The prototype Mixed Amebicide is
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
This drug is selective vs anaerobic organisms e.g. Trichomoniasis vaginalis, E. histolytica & G. Lambli
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
MOA of Metronidazole (Flagyl) is this?
it is reduced to a highly reactive free radical which denatures DNA
This is the DOC for amebic dysentery it is usually given w/ a luminal amebicide to ↑ activity.
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Side effects of this drug include Nausea, dry mouth, metallic taste. Disulfuram-Like Reaction with alcohol vasodilation, severe headache, profuse sweating
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
DOC of Giardiasis
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Drug of choice for Trichomoniasis
metronidazole (Flagyl)
A nitroimidazole effective for amebiasis, giardiasis & trichomoniasis.
MOA: Acts by forming free radicals and denatures DNA.
Tinadazole (Tindamax)
Effective for toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS.
Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) + Sulfadiazine(generic)
MOA: Acts synergistically to inhibit two sequential steps in synthesis of folic acid which is required for DNA synthesis
Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) + Sulfadiazine(generic)
Used to treat roundworms, esp. pinworms.
Mebendazole (Vermox)
MOA: ↓↓ polymerization of tubulin & synthesis of microtubules ↓↓ glucose uptake & oxidative phosphorylation
Mebendazole (Vermox)
Minimally absorbed; rapidly metabolized.
May cause abdominal pain, V, D.
Mebendazole (Vermox)
For various roundworms & pinworms.
Pyrantel (Pin-Rid):
MOA: A depolarizing neuromuscular blocker→ muscle paralysis of worms→ detachment & expulsion
↓↓ AChE → ↑ spastic paralysis
Pyrantel (Pin-Rid):
This roundworm & Pinworm treatment may have side effects of, NVD, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness & rash.
Pyrantel (Pin-Rid)
Rx of choice for strongyloidiasis (threadworm). It is most common among kids in rural south & in institutionalized pts in unsanitary conditions. Also for Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
Ivermectin (Stromectol)
MOA: Activates glutamate-gated Cl– channels → hyperpolarization & paralysis of the nematode’s muscle → death & expulsion. This type of Cl – Channels is found only in invertebrates. Cestodes (tapeworms) do NOT have R for this Rx.
Ivermectin (Stromectol)
Adverse reactions:
Mazotti Reaction: fever, dizziness, rash, D, weakness, pruritis, joint & muscle pain, hypotension, tachycardia & edema.
- Occurs in 5-30% of patients; generally mild, well-tolerated & of short duration.
- NSAIDs & steroids relieve symptoms of the reaction.
Ivermectin (Stromectol)
Rx of choice for schistosomiasis (blood flukes), which is generally carried to the U.S. from S. America, Caribbean, China or Philippines. also effective for intestinal cestode
Praziquantel (Biltricide)
MOA: ↑ worm’s cell membrane
permeability to CA 2+ → ↑ Ca 2+ → spastic paralysis & detachment
Praziquantel (Biltricide)
Common side effects of this Rx for schistosomiasis is Malaise, anorexia NV, headache, drowsiness, dizziness.
Praziquantel (Biltricide):
Indicated for pork tapeworms and cestodal infx., e.g. neurocysticercosis , hydatid disease
Albendazole (Albenza):
MOA: ↓↓ polymerization of tubulin
Albendazole (Albenza)
this drug indicated for pork tapeworms and cestodal infx May cause epigastric distress, NVD, headache, dizziness, insomnia
Albendazole (Albenza)
A blood schizontocide effective vs all forms of malaria except the exoerythrocytic tissue stages of plasmodium
Chloroquine (Aralen):
MOA: Prevents polymerization of heme → oxidative damage
Chloroquine (Aralen)
High doses of this anti-malarial can cause hypotension, confusion, psychosis, ototoxicity, retinopathy
Chloroquine (Aralen)
High doses of this anti-malarial can cause hypotension, confusion, psychosis, ototoxicity, retinopathy
Chloroquine (Aralen)
Resistence to Chloroquine (Aralen) is common, if suspected, use ________ b/c falciparum can be fatal
this drug is also used for rheumatoid arthritis (anti-inflammatory activity)
Chloroquine (Aralen)
A cinchona alkaloid from the bark of the S. American cinchona tree & is the stereoisomer of quinidine. It is more toxic & less effective than chloroquine.
Quinine (generic)
MOA: Same as chloroquine
Quinine (generic)
Uses: A blood schizontocide for acute attack -- not prophylaxis.
Quinine (generic)
Side effects of this antimalarial includes:

Mild: Tinnitus, headache, NVD, blurred, vision, rash, urticaria
Severe (rare): Widen QRS complex, AV block, V-tachycardia
2) Hyperinsulinemia → hypoglycemia (common) – moniter sugar
A blood schizontocide reserved for chlorquine & multi-Rx resistant strains of P. falciparum
Mefloquine (Larium)
MOA: Same as chloroquine
B. Side effects:
Mild: NVD, headache, dizziness, rash
Serious: Depression, psychosis, seizure
Mefloquine (Larium)
Caution: Can exacerbate epilepsy & psychiatric disorders → convulsions, anxiety, paranoid, depression. Suicide Warning !!
Mefloquine (Larium)
A blood & tissue schizontocide that is also effective vs P. vivax & P. ovale. It can prevent relapse from these organisms but is ineffective vs erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum
Primaquine (generic):
MOA: Unknown
B. Adverse reactions of this antimalarial include:
1) Nausea, epigastric pain, cramps.
2) Methemoglobinemia → cyanosis
Primaquine (generic)
TEST patients for G6PD levels before using this Rx. Patients with ↓ G6PD → acute hemolysis & hemolytic anemia. African-Americans are at greater risk.
MOA is that it ↓↓ DHF Reductase
B. Generally used with a sulfonamide for sequential block of folic acid synthesis → ↓ Resistence
Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)
This drug is pyrimethamine + sulfadoxine, a long acting sulfonamide used for acute attack.
MOA of sulfadoxine
↓↓ Dihydropteridine synthase
SE of this antimalarial Rx are mostly due to the sulfa. They include--SLE, Steven-Johnson syndrome, serum sickness, hepatitis
For prophylaxis & acute attacks, including chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum
Atovaquone + Proguanil (Malarone)
This drug acts to disrupt mitochondrial electron transport
a. Metabolite (cycloguanil) inhibits bifunctional DHFR-thymidylate synthetase
b. Parent Rx ↑ atovaquone effect
This antimalarial combination is generally well-tolerated.
Side effects include abdominal pain, NVD, headache
Reversible ↑ liver enzyme
Atovaquone + Proguanil (Malarone):