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80 Cards in this Set

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> 90% protein bound
PHT
VPA
PRM
P450 inducers
PHT
CBZ, OXC
PB, PRM
P450 inhibitors
VPA
Cross reactivity
PHT
PB
ESX
LTG
CBZ
Renal excretion
GBP
PGB
FBM (hepatic too)
OXC (metabolite only; pro-drug = hepatic)
TPM (hepatic too)
ZPS (hepatic too)
Rash
LEV (lowest)
ZPS (sulfa)
LTG (more in kids)

also--PHT, ESX, OXC, PB
Neural Tube Defect
CBZ (P450 inducer)
PHT (P450 inducer)
VPA
Weight Loss
TPM (nephrolithiasis)
ZPS (nephrolithiasis)
ESX
FBM
Weight gain
GBP
PGB
VPA
Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)
TPM
ZPS
Gingival Hyperplasia
PHT
FBM
Migraine prophylaxis
VPA
TPM
Mood stabilizers
LTG
OXC
GBP
VPA
CBZ
Broad spectrum
LTG
VPA
Last line of AED tx (and possible reasons why)
FBM--aplastic anemia, hepatic failure
All AEDs cause sedation except?
FBM
All AEDs follow this type of pharmacokinetics (a-which is?) except this drug (b-which drug & follows which type?)
a-most follow 1st order
b-PHT: 0-order
This drug can follow non-linear first order kinetics
CBZ
Aplastic Anemia
FBM**
(CBZ)
SJS
LTG**
(all 1st generation AEDs--CBZ, PHT, VPA, PB/PRM,ESX)
AED but more effective for neuropathic pain
GBP
an AED that is a controlled substance
a) what drug?
b) what class?
a) PGB
b) Schedule V
Causes severe HYPO-Na-emia but less severe rash
a) what drug?
b) what drug is similar to it and the difference?
a) OXC
b) similar to CBZ, which causes less severe HPYO-Na-emia but more severe rash
diplopia
CBZ
blurred vision
CBZ
ataxia
CBZ
Leukopenia, agranulocytosis,
CBZ
acne
PHT
hirsutism
PHT
facial coarsening
PHT
effective for absence seizures only
ESX
Treatment of absence seizures
T-type Ca2+ channel blockers:
VPA
ESX
LTG
ZPS
Behavioral problems
PB--in children
GBP--children
Sleep disturbance
ESX
alopecia
VPA
Cognition problems (e.g. anomia--word naming problem)
TPM
Metabolic acidosis
TPM
Psychosis & hallucinations
LEV
Causes hiccups
ESX
Glaucoma
TPM
severe gout
TPM
causes cleft palate, lip hair, congenital heart defects
all 1st generation AEDs--
CBZ
PHT
VPA
PB/PRM
ESX
Except for FBM, what are the 5 prominent AE caused by AED use?
1) Sedation
2) GI upset
3) Dizziness
4) Nystagmus
5) Disturbances of cognition & behavior
Metallic taste
TPM
not very effective for AED (other indications are better)
GBP
increase ammonia levels in blood ("hyper-ammoninemia")
VPA
thrombocytopenia
CBZ
VPA
acute pancreatitis & acute hepatitis
VPA
Folate/Vit D deficiency
PHT
causes Peripheral Neuropathy
PHT
Blood dyscrasias
PHT
Hepatitis
CBZ
PHT (less)
(VPA--acute hep & acute pancreatitis)
Treatment of Essential tremor
PRM
Poorly soluble
a) what is the soluble form called?
PHT
a) Fosphenytoin
CBZ--MOA
X Na+ channel
PHT--MOA
X Na+ channel
VPA--MOA
X Na+ channel
X T-type Ca2+ channel
PB/PRM--MOA
increase GABA-ergic transmission
ESX--MOA
X T-type Ca2+ channel
GBP--MOA
increase GABA-ergic transmission
LMG--MOA
X Na+ channels
*****X glutamatergic transmission*****
X T-type Ca2+ channels
TPM--MOA
X Na+ channels
enhances GABAergic transmission
OXC--MOA
X Na+ channels
LEV--MOA
?
ZNS--MOA
X Na+ channels
X T-type Ca2+ channels
FBM--MOA
X Na+ channels
PGB--MOA
?
Drugs that work by X Na+ channels
VPA
FBM
CBZ
OXC
LMG
PHT
TPM
ZPS
Drugs that work by X glutaminergic transmission
LTG
Drugs that work by X T-type Ca2+ channels
VPA
ESX
LMT
ZPS
Drugs that work by increase GABA-ergic response
PB
GBP
TPM
Drugs w/ unknown mechanisms
LEV
PGB
Diverse manifestations determined by the region of the cortex activated by the seizure, lasting ≈ 20 to 60 sec.

Key feature is preservation of consciousness
Simple partial seizure
Impaired consciousness lasting ≈ 30 sec to 2 min, often associated with purposeless movements (e.g., lip smacking and wringing).
Complex partial seizure
Simple or complex partial seizure evolves into a tonic-clonic seizure with loss of consciousness and sustained contractions of muscles (tonic) throughout the body followed by periods of muscle contraction alternating with period of relaxation (clonic), typically lasting ≈ 1 to 2 min.
Partial seizure with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure
Abrupt onset of impaired consciousness associated with staring and cessation of ongoing activities, typically lasting < 30 sec (aka petit mal); the only seizure type that does not cause brain damage.
Absence seizure
A brief (≈ 1 sec), shock-like contraction of muscles that may be restricted to part of one extremity or may be generalized.
Myoclonic seizure
Sustained contractions of muscles, typically lasting ≈ 1 to 3 min.
Tonic seizure
As described above for partial seizure with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures except that it is not preceded by a partial seizure (aka grand mal).
Tonic-clonic seizure
A sudden loss of muscle tone, resulting in falling (“drop attack”), typically lasting ≈ secs
Atonic seizure