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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
call systems
closed- elements of one call cannot be combined with elements of another to produce a new message
cultural adaptation
all of the learned of socially acquired responces and behaviors that affect reproduction, provisioningm shelter (survival)
cultural relativism
the ability to view the beliefs and customs of other people within the context of their cultural matrix rather than one's own
culture
system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of a society use to cope with their world and with one another... generation to generation through learning
empiricism
reliance on observable and quantifiable data
enculturation
becoming proficient in the cultural codes of one's society
ethnocentrism
people in every society tend to view outsiders and their customs with suspicion and often condemnation
gender
behavioral or culturally interpreted dimensions of sexual categories
holism
study and description of the properties of complex systems... includes studies of living systems comprised of interacting organisms
Homo Sapiens
Human species
hypothesis
statement about the relationship that can possible be shown to be untrue
language
open-number of messages is infinite
natural selection
only the strongest will survive
participant observation
anthropologist enters the field in which is to be studied
scientific theory
statement that postulates ordered relationships among natural phenomenons
socialization
acquiring the technical skills of ones society
adaptation
organism makes biological or behavioral adjustments that facilitate their survival and reproductive success
carrying capacity
the point at or below which a population tends to stabalize
ecosystem
cycle of matter and energy that includes all living things and links them to nonliving
environment
every factor that inpinges on the life chances of the individual, not just the obvious preditors etc.
evolution
small changes in a species over time that can lead to a transformation
foraging
food gathering dependent on naturally occuring resources, especially wild plants, also hunting
genes
hereditary information passed from parents to offspring
habitat
specific area where a species lives
horticulture
working on small plots of land w/o animals, plows, or irrigation
industrial agriculture
farming using lots of technology and fuels
intensive agriculture
involves animals, plows and some kind of irrigation
niche
what one does to survive
pastoralism
economy largely based on the use of domesticated animals even if they get their food thru trade
political ecology
focuses on the distribution of power
subsistence agriculture
limited nonhuman energy sources
resilience
ability of an ecosystem to undergo change while still maintaing its basic elements of relationships
stability
the ability of an ecosystem to return to equilibrium after disturbances
subsistence agriculture
limited nonhuman energy sources
resilience
ability of an ecosystem to undergo change while still maintaing its basic elements of relationships
stability
the ability of an ecosystem to return to equilibrium after disturbances
balanced reciprocity
gift giving that carries an obligation of an eventual equal return
bands
loosley integrated population sharing a sense of common identity but few specialized institutions
bride service
service rendered by a male the the family whom he takes the daughter in marriage
ethnographic present
point and time in which a society or culture is frozen when enthrographic data is collected to make a report
generalized reciprocity
informal gift giving which no accounts are kept and no immidiate return is expected
low-energy budget
adaptive strategy by which a minimum of energy is used to extract sufficient resources to survive
negative reciprocity
each side tries to get the better end of the bargin
potlach
reciprical feasting and gift giving that can involve the conspicious display even the destruction of wealth
reciprocity
mutual giving and taking between people who are often bound by social ties and obligations
social control
framework of rewards and sanctions that channel behavior
acculation
cultural changes that occurs in responce to extended firsthand contacts between two or more previously autonomous groups
clan
a group that claims but cannot trace precisely their descent from a common ancestor
domestication
people try to control reproduuction of plants and animals
extensive agriculture
farming using limited sources of human energy
headman
leaders of tribal or band orginaizied societies
horticulture
simple for of agriculture based on working small plots of land with no animals plows or irrigation
household
domestic residential group whose members live together in intimate contact, rear children etc.
kula ring
system of exchanges among the Trobriand Islanders linking dispersed island communitiesm in which 2 varieties of ceremonial shells are essential good are traded in separate spheres of exchange
matrilineal descent
traces thru the female line
moiety
one of the two subdivisions of a society with a dual organizational structure
Neolithic Revolution
develp. of agriculture and consequent cultural changes that occurred at dfferent times and palces in the old and new worlds
patrilineal descent
traced thru the male line
polyculture
planting of many species or strains of plants in close proximity
postpartum taboo
supernaturally justified prohibitions of certain activities following a birth
sedentism
establishing a permanent year round settlement
slash and burn (swidden) agriculture
fields are cleared, trees and brush burned and soil is fertalized by the ash
spheres of exchange
modes of exchange: reciprocity, redistribution, market exchange
age grade
category of people of the same sex and approximantly the same age who share a set of duties and privilages
age set
about same age, lifetime of those individuals
animal husbandry
breeding, care, and use of heard animals
cattle complex
cattle reps. social status and wealth
economic stratification
the segmentation of society along lines of access to resources
horizontal migration
nomadic pattern characterized by regular movement over a large area in search of a pasture
nomadic pastoralism
strategy of moving ones heards from pasture to pasture
oasis
human constructed fertile area in an arid region
sedentary pastoralism
animal husbandry that does not involve mobility
segmentary liniage
decent group in which minimal lineages are encompassed as segments of minor lineages, minors as major and so on
specialized pastoralism
exclusive reliance of animal husbandry
transhumance
seasonal movement of livestock between upland and lowlands