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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Static
don't change (stabile)
Dynamic
change (the adaptable part)
Static-the 5 subcatagories
-structure
-social stratification (position within society; the levels, layers, ranks)
-status (position in society)
-Ascribed (a form of status)- position given to you like nationality and ethnicity.
-sex- born male or female
Dynamic - the 5 subcatagories
-culture
-socialization (education from birth)
-role (expected behavior per status
-attained (a type of status. get a new position. changes only through your own efforts-with education)
-gender (behaviors expected from the certain sex. they can change form culture to culture.
People occupy many status'

true or false?
true

ex. student, employee, etc
we occupy many staus'

true or false
true

ex. employee, student, etc
Role COnflict
-trying to behave with 2 separate status' at one time.

ex. employee asked to pick up her sick child but they have a huge presentation in 10 minutes
Life Cycle
Status changes over the life cycle-recognized by society.
Society recognizes 4 things
(main status changes)
1.birth
2.puberty
3.marriage
4.death
Rites of Passage
-mark your status changing
-rituals may be prformed
in most cases male and female rites of passage are different

true or false
true
Menarche
on set of menestration (female goes from girl to womean)
Boys rite of passage
-pretty much a judgment call, no biological signs.
-usually ritual is a process (training, testing, and proving tests)
Aruntas

-where they live?
-kinship?
-subsistence base
-Australia
-Patrilineal
-hunters and gatherers
Arunta's rite of passage for boys
when a boy thinks he is ready to become a man he tells his dad and then his uncle is is sponser. they travel to other groups so he can get advice. then there is a big ceremony for rituals where the boys are separted from everyone. a circumsizer comes in. if the boy flinches during then he is a coward for the rest of his life; if he doesn't he is well-respected
male Rite of Passage for many tribes in North America
after training and purifying, the boy goes into the woods naked for about 4 days. he prays and hopes that a supernatural being takes pity on him and becomes his protector. he is given a new name and when the boy returns he is given adult status.
-boy in this process is socially dead
-once the process begins they have to finish it
when are americans considered adults?
never actually said because we have no rites of passage.
Socialization
to play our roles effectively, we need to be taught the proper behavior.
we learn this from education.
Levels of Expectation
-vary widely, very different from society to society.
-cultures tell you how to achieve the set levels of expectation
1950's
Lewis
Did fieldwork in Mexico. discoverd Concept of Limited Goods. village here was made of poor farmers who didn't own the land. they paid for the land use with most of their crops. there was no way to get ahead; just keep enough food for your family. but people always stayed because this all they have known from birth and they believed the world had limits. if you leave, you lose the little bit of good that has been given to you. no one kills themselves either because they are catholic and you go to hell if you kill yourself. if you are a good person in this crappy life though then you'll get to go to heaven.
American level of expectation
-there are no limits.
-we shoot for the American dream
-can achieve whatever we are willing to work for
caste system vs. class system
caste-could not move levels. the level you were born into is the level you die at.

class-free mobility. definitely able to move from different class levels.
Social Stratifictation
-structural operation
-can move from level to level
-the levels, way of differentiatiing groups from each other (race, gender, occupation, education)
americans have ____ social classes
9
Social Mobility
Whether or not people are able to move among their socila positions.
T or F

you don't usually jump from lower lower to upper upper. it usually happens over generations.
T
Model Cultural Personality
-taught to be the perfect citizen in that society (ex. Americans-hardworker, healthy, good education, wealthy)
-perfect representation of your culture.
-it's a process that goes on during socialization and it varies from group to group
Nuer
-patrolocal
-sexual division of labor
-assertive, honorbound, take respect seriously, short tempers, quick to laugh
-children try to model this behavior
-boys and girls learn early what their sex is expected to do. (boys=cattle, girls=everything else)
trobriand islanders
-they must cooperate with each other because they are on an isladn and have no where else to go
-everyone cares for the children.
-children are never punished for doing something bad, just given something good to do instead
-in the evenings adults go to different campfires to talk and the children play. when they children get tired they simply find an adult and crawl into their laps. it doesn't matter who's lap it is.
Americans
-expected to be independetn, self-sufficient
-competition based
-different cultures shape people in different ways
-ideal characteristics=rugged individualist
subsection of socialization and social stratification

sex and gender
-sex does not equal gender
-Sex- status, ascribed status, biological term, male or female
-Gender-Culturally defined behavior, what your culture expects you to do if you are born a boy or girl. Defines masculine and feminine behaviors.
Sex and Gender example

Papua, New Guninea
-large island with 800 languages and cultures
-Margaret Mead studied the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli
-Mead's fieldwork has been challenged because people thought she was just trying to satisfy her mentor Franz Boas with her findings.
-she ended up in a territory by the Sepik River
Arapesh
small people, dark eyes, hair, and skin; people of Melanesia, people now look lik ethey did in the 30's.
-patrilineal
-lived in settled villages
-fishing and gardening
-ideal female and male were the same (nurturing, non-aggressive, and cooperative)
Mundugamor
-fishing and gardening
-settled villages
-ROPE kinship - changes sex every other generation
-Male- competitive, aggressive, fearful, cannibal
sodality
brotherhood, fellowship
American level of expectation
-there are no limits.
-we shoot for the American dream
-can achieve whatever we are willing to work for
caste system vs. class system
caste-could not move levels. the level you were born into is the level you die at.

class-free mobility. definitely able to move from different class levels.
Social Stratifictation
-structural operation
-can move from level to level
-the levels, way of differentiatiing groups from each other (race, gender, occupation, education)
americans have ____ social classes
9
Social Mobility
Whether or not people are able to move among their socila positions.
T or F

you don't usually jump from lower lower to upper upper. it usually happens over generations.
T
Model Cultural Personality
-taught to be the perfect citizen in that society (ex. Americans-hardworker, healthy, good education, wealthy)
-perfect representation of your culture.
-it's a process that goes on during socialization and it varies from group to group
Nuer
-patrolocal
-sexual division of labor
-assertive, honorbound, take respect seriously, short tempers, quick to laugh
-children try to model this behavior
-boys and girls learn early what their sex is expected to do. (boys=cattle, girls=everything else)
trobriand islanders
-they must cooperate with each other because they are on an isladn and have no where else to go
-everyone cares for the children.
-children are never punished for doing something bad, just given something good to do instead
-in the evenings adults go to different campfires to talk and the children play. when they children get tired they simply find an adult and crawl into their laps. it doesn't matter who's lap it is.
Americans
-expected to be independetn, self-sufficient
-competition based
-different cultures shape people in different ways
-ideal characteristics=rugged individualist
subsection of socialization and social stratification

sex and gender
-sex does not equal gender
-Sex- status, ascribed status, biological term, male or female
-Gender-Culturally defined behavior, what your culture expects you to do if you are born a boy or girl. Defines masculine and feminine behaviors.
Sex and Gender example

Papua, New Guninea
-large island with 800 languages and cultures
-Margaret Mead studied the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli
-Mead's fieldwork has been challenged because people thought she was just trying to satisfy her mentor Franz Boas with her findings.
-she ended up in a territory by the Sepik River
Arapesh
small people, dark eyes, hair, and skin; people of Melanesia, people now look lik ethey did in the 30's.
-patrilineal
-lived in settled villages
-fishing and gardening
-ideal female and male were the same (nurturing, non-aggressive, and cooperative)
Mundugamor
-fishing and gardening
-settled villages
-ROPE kinship - changes sex every other generation
-Male- competitive, aggressive, fearful, cannibal
sodality
brotherhood, fellowship
gender stratification
the degree to which males and females are unequal in dimensions such as power, status, or influence, access to valued resources, eligibility for social positions. Also the sbility to make decisions about their own lives.
Gender Crossing
custom by which one sex is allowed to adopt the roles and behavior of the opposite sex with little or no stigma or punishment.
Ideology
Ideas and beliefs that legitimize and thus reinforce inequalities in startified societies.
Gerontology
the study of old age and the problems and diseases in old people
liminal
relating to a threshold
-of a stimulus just storn enough to be conscientiuosly experienced; also at a treshold or transitional stage
Transvestism
relating to cross dressing
Berdache
-a womanly man
-recognized a man taking on a woman's roles
the indian tribe Crow
-Manly Woman
-matrilineal
Yokuts
lived in northern california, hinting and gathering, partilineal, strong sexual division of labor
-there was a young woman though who was married with kids but she kept having dreams that she was to lead a war party. she goes to the shamen and he tells her she needs to carry this out or else the tribe will be in danger. she tells the tribe and they give her some men and they go raid another village. they come back very prosperous. she leads more and eventually becomes the war chief. she renames herself Manly Woman. she is never hoem though to take care of her family. husband divorces her and takes kids and remarries. she marries a woman so that she will have everything ready for her when she comes home.
Political Structure
-a means of regualting or managing inter-relationships among groups and their representatives.
-a mechanism for social control, decision making, and conflist resolution at a group level.
4 basic levels of Political Organization
Band - 100 people or less
Tribe-1,000-10,000
Chiefdom-2,000-30,000
State-Unlimited
Equalitarian
-everyone is equal and gets a vote.
gender stratification
the degree to which males and females are unequal in dimensions such as power, status, or influence, access to valued resources, eligibility for social positions. Also the sbility to make decisions about their own lives.
Gender Crossing
custom by which one sex is allowed to adopt the roles and behavior of the opposite sex with little or no stigma or punishment.
Ideology
Ideas and beliefs that legitimize and thus reinforce inequalities in startified societies.
Gerontology
the study of old age and the problems and diseases in old people
liminal
relating to a threshold
-of a stimulus just storn enough to be conscientiuosly experienced; also at a treshold or transitional stage
Transvestism
relating to cross dressing
Berdache
-a womanly man
-recognized a man taking on a woman's roles
the indian tribe Crow
-Manly Woman
-matrilineal
Yokuts
lived in northern california, hinting and gathering, partilineal, strong sexual division of labor
-there was a young woman though who was married with kids but she kept having dreams that she was to lead a war party. she goes to the shamen and he tells her she needs to carry this out or else the tribe will be in danger. she tells the tribe and they give her some men and they go raid another village. they come back very prosperous. she leads more and eventually becomes the war chief. she renames herself Manly Woman. she is never hoem though to take care of her family. husband divorces her and takes kids and remarries. she marries a woman so that she will have everything ready for her when she comes home.
Political Structure
-a means of regualting or managing inter-relationships among groups and their representatives.
-a mechanism for social control, decision making, and conflist resolution at a group level.
4 basic levels of Political Organization
Band - 100 people or less
Tribe-1,000-10,000
Chiefdom-2,000-30,000
State-Unlimited
Equalitarian
-everyone is equal and gets a vote.
Theory of Structuralism
-believes that humans normally set up opposition (in-out, down-up).
-they are usually absolute and empty categories (where is absolute up and in?)
-between opposition everything real happens
-always seeking to reconcile the oppositions
How can the theory of structuralism be used to describe the social institution of socialization and social stratification?
The theory of Structuralism involves humans normally setting up opposition. This is used to describe socialization and social stratification because it involves static and dynamic. static meaning it does not change and dynamic meaning it does change. for example, with social stratification our position in society, the ascribed postion (like the ones you are born with) are not able to be changed. But the Dynamic portion with Socialization, your role is attained and can be changed. for example, from birth one starts to be educated on how to do things, and the behaivors expected of them.
What is role conflict?
Role conflict is trying to behave with two separate status' at one time. For example, someone may have the status of being an employee and a mother. When at work one day she may be called by the school that her child is sick and needs to be taken home but the woman may have a huge presentation in 10 minutes that she can't miss so then there is major conflict.
What are the phases of the life cycle? How are the rites of passage used to mark status changes within a person' life cycle?
the phase of the life cycle are birth, puberty, marriage, death. the rite of passage allows a boy or girl to become an adult and therefor be treated like an adult by all of society. often, the boys and girls have to accomplish tasks or make themselves pure before they will be considered adults and this helps them to mark their status further in the eyes of society.
What is the differnce between sex and gender?
Sex is whether a person is male or female. Gender is the behaviors expected for a person of a certain sex. These behaviors can change from society to society because often societies do not agree on this topic. Sex is an ascribed status and it's a biological term (male or female). Meanwhile, gender is a culturally defined behavior (what your culture expects you to do, the role you are to play).
How do the functional theory of inequality and the conflict theory of inequality differ from each other?
The functional theory is about it is necessary to maintain a society's state of equilibrium. Some positions in society are more functionally important than others and everyone plays a certain role. In the Conflict theory, each individual struggles to maximize their beneifts and this leads to change.
What is a sexual division of labor? Give examples
A sexual divison of labor is that from society to society, there are expected tasks for girls to do and expected tasks for boys to do, no mixing.

Ex. in the Nuer culture, boys are brought up to know that their main responsibilty is the cattle. That is to be their main task, not cooking, cleaning, or sewing; whereas girls are taught from birth that they have no place with cattle. the only time they get to do anything with them is when they have to milk them. their job is in the home, cleaning and taking care of the kids and making baskets, etc.