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82 Cards in this Set

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Environment of Evolutionary adaptedness EEA, 2 million yrs – 10,000 yrs ago, is when most of our behavior evolved
Pleistocene Period
The design of the human mind was created and shaped by natural selection and sexual selection.
Design of the Human mind
Scavenging and hunters and gatherers, nomadic/semi-nomadic lifestyle, low density of people, high infant mortality and low life expectancy
Life in the EEA Times
holds 900+ genes
X-Chromosome
holds 80 genes and contains the SRY gene that acts as testes-determining factor (thus controlling hormones
Y-Chromosome
produce androgens, such as testosterone
Fetal testes
turns some genes rather than others and this differential gene activation contributes to sex differences in development (of the brain, body behavior)
Testosterone
If this is not inherited, the embryo continues to develop as before, as female, or the “default sex”
If no SRY gene inherited
This helps men and women to be found much more attractive, because it can effect reproductive fertility and fitness. It indicates good genes which is why we use it to choose our mates.
Symmetry
Subjects sit in a room for 3 minutes and later recall items in the room. Women scored 60-70% better, but men are better at reading maps
o Left Hemisphere- dominance for language, if the LH is damaged it is likely that language damage will follow
Items Recall Tests
are selected to be promiscuous. tend to use cardinal direction (north, south); hunters and inter-group violence/warfare; men value highest women’s physical appearance which helps depict their fertility;
Males
are selected to be choosy; tend to use left/right landmarks; most of foraging and plant food gathering; use 3x more words each day than men; women value men’s financial resources which depicts help in raising a family
Females
-Provide Resources for food, housing, protection
-Status, Ambition, Wealth
-Parental Investment, children likely to survive with additional help
-Healthy Mates, good genes
Sexual Selection, what women want
-Many partners, number of sperm vs eggs
-Fertile Mates
-Parental Investment
-Healthy Mates/Good Genes, females stay alive to raise offspring
Sexual Selection, What men want
(which are caused by hormones)- Fuller lips, fat deposits on hips and breasts
Estrogens
(which are caused by hormones)- Wider and longer jaw, wider nose, more pronounced brow ridges, thicker eyebrows
Androgens
perceived beauty depends on an interaction between displayed hormone markers and the hormonal state of the viewer
Hormonal Theory of Facial Attractiveness
Concluded that high-earning women value earning capacity of their husband’s more than low-earning women. Men want Kindness, Intelligence, Beauty and Youth. Women want Kindness, Intelligence, Wealth and Status.
David Buss Study
Short-Term mates are selected on the basis of physical characteristics while Long-term mates are by psychological characteristics.
Why different mates are selected for which reasons
6 men wore a shirt for 2 consecutive nights, women preferred the smell of men’s shirts with different MHC
Wedekind’s Research
plays a central role in controlling immunological self/non-self recognition, influences individual recognition and mating preferences in animals. MHC in humans is called HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen).
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
Oxytocin and vasopressin, both hormones are important to long term bonding
Attachment
an action that draws people together; Dopamine, also activated by cocaine and nicotine (love is addictive); Norepinephrine, known as adrenaline, starts us sweating and gets the heart racing; Serotonin, one of love’s most important chemicals that may send us temporarily insane
Attraction
An intense longing, testosterone and estrogen (sex drive)
Lust
the greater the risk of sperm competition, the more sperm should be inseminated during copulation. Baker & Bellis found that the less time a couple spent together, the more sperm ejaculated inside the women.
sperm competition
There are different hormones involved at each stage. Lust, Attraction, Attachment
Three Main Phases of Love
Vagina= 12 hours, too acidic; Cervix= 5 to 10 days; Fertilization can occur 5 days after copulation
Sperm can live
Linnaeus’ Taxonomy of People 1758
White, cheerful, muscular. Hair yellow, brown; eyes blue, gentle, acute. Covered with cloth vestments. Ruled by customs and laws.
Homo Sapiens Europaeus
Linnaeus’ Taxonomy of People 1758
Black, sluggish, relaxed. Hair Black, frizzled. Skin silky; nose flat; lips swollen; crafty lethargic, negligent. Rubs himself with grease. Ruled by caprice and impulse.
Homo Sapiens afer
Linnaeus’ Taxonomy of People 1758
Pale, yellow, miserable, stiff. Hair black, eyes dark; stuck-up, envious. Covered with loose garments. Ruled by belief and opinions.
Homo Sapiens asiaticus
Linnaeus’ Taxonomy of People 1758
red, angry, upright. Hair black, straight, thick; nostrils wide; face harsh, beard scantly; stubborn, content free. Paints himself with fine red lines. Ruled by habit and instinct.
Homo Sapiens Americanus
is based on false belief that intellect and cultural factors are inherited with physical characteristics. Assumes that one’s own group is superior.
Racism
The false belief that there is a relationship between physical characteristics such as skin color or sex, and certain behavioral traits such as intelligence and mortality.
Biological Determinism
His studies found no direct links between race, brain size, cranial capacity and intelligence levels; said politics and ideology influenced these “scientifically” racist views.
Franz Boaz 1900
o There is NO characteristic, trait or gene that distinguishes all members of one race from all members of another race. Despite surface difference, we are the most similar of all species (99.9% similar).
NO characteristic, trait or gene that distinguishes all members of one race from all members of another race.
Most mammals lose the ability to digest milk in adulthood. Western Eurasian ancestry can drink milk while Eastern Eurasians are lactose intolerant. 70% of ALL ppl cannot tolerate lactose as adults.
Lactose Intolerant
Most common among people of European ancestry, and helps protect against cholera
Cystic Fybrosis
slow four-handed climbing, hands and feet are used with equal efficiency and are considered interchangeable, the Orangutans.
Quadrumanual
walk on all fours, with flat palms
Quadrupedal
Vertical Climbing and Leaping, Pygmy Marmoset, the Tarsier, the Sifaka.
VCL
Swinging by the arms from branch to branch, the Gibbon.
Brachiation
A combination of leaping and arm swinging, the Muriqui, the Spider Monkey.
Semibrachiation
the upper parts of the body are supported by the knuckles rather than the palms, the Gorilla.
Knuckle Walking
extra musculature vertebrae and a kind of rubberized grip, NWM atelidae and some cebidae.
Prehensile Tail
fruit-eater, e.g. orangutans and chimpanzees
Frugivore
plant eater (includes leaf & fruit eaters), e.g. gorillas
Herbivore
animal and plant eater, e.g. owl monkey and orangutans
Omnivore
gum-eaters (sap and gums from “injuries” to trees), e.g. tamarinsand marmosets
Gummivore / exudativore
insect-eaters, e.g. tarsiers and marmosets
Insectivore
leaf-eater, e.g. leaf eating monkeys such as colobines and langurs → → and Gorilla Diet(2:00 total)
Folivore
32 teeth= 8 incisors, 4 Canines, 8 Premolars, 12 Molars. 36 teeth= 4 extra premolars.
how many teeth and how many of each kind?
have 32 teeth adult teeth, although some NWM have 36.
Most anthropoid's teeth(humans, apes, and OWM)
Incisors, canines, premolars & molars (ICPM).
4 Types of Teeth
Humans and NH primates develop two sets of teeth; Deciduous: milk or baby teeth & Permanent teeth.
Two sets of teeth...
are frugivores and have specially adapted cheek pouches to store food as they forage, and then they eat the food in a safe place.
OWM Cercopithecines
Brain large relative to body mass, increased intelligence, increased reliance on social behaviors when they live in larger groups (chimps outperformed humans at memory tasks)
Primates Brains
6-9 months pregnant, fewer offspring born
Parenting Skills
bone in the throat that indicates the ability to use language. If it is enlarged, it allows for long, loud calls for primates. It establishes territory and is used for warnings (Orangutans, Howler Monkeys & Siamangs)
Hyoid Bone
overall reduction in nose size and the olfactory areas of the brain; shift from smell to vision as most important sense (elongated snout = enhanced smell)
Olfactory System
black and white view
Monochromatic View
can only see blues and greens
Dichromatic View
can see all the colors
Trichromatic View
Single adult male lives with several females and their offspring. Single male constantly battle by outside males to takeover resident male position. Competition is very high in one-male societies, as a result, many infants are killed due to a change of a resident male. Other males form separate all-male bands, or live alone as bachelors.
Polygyny
not strictly polygynous; some male-male competition, few males and many females in offspring
Male Multi-female Groups
affection, bonding, friendship, reduce tension, reconcile after a fight, hygiene, traded for sex… sometimes
Different Social Groups
Significance of Grooming- (cleaning, picking and eating ticks)
specifically two types, Polyandry and Polygyny
Polygamy
These groups consists of one female and multiple males, she mates with all of them. Males invest a lot in their offspring. Very rare among mammals & humans
Polyandry
“family” one male & one female and their offspring, very territorial. Mammals= 3%, Primates= 15%, Human Society= 19%
Monogamy
groups with promiscuous mating, such groups are characterized by complex intra-troop politics and competition. Large in size, great deal of sexual dimorphism. Competition between males physically and inside the females vaginal tract. (Chimpanzees, Bonobos, Muriqui)
MM-MF- (multimale-multifemale)
based off territories, males and females don’t form permanent mix groups, individual males have ranges that overlap several different female ranges
Noyau
part of the female reproductive cycle when the egg is released from the ovary. (estrus ~ ovulation), sexual swelling (visual), chemical signal (pheromonal), invites the male for sex (behavioral)
Ovulating
A group has a shared territory, all members of the group are friendly to one another, but keeps non-members out. But they do not travel together, they form smaller groups to forage and these groups join and split constantly. Basically, MM-MF groups with promiscuous mating with the feature of splitting off into small groups.
Fission-Fusion Groups
usually attract when they’re ovulating because for many species this is the only time when a female is willing or physically can have sex, they’ll display their estrus
Female attracting Males
ornamentation (body bling), strength, coloration, large body size, be a friend, being the alpha, give her resources: food, sleeping sites, protection, pheromones: smell a good mate
Males attracting Females
Humans, chimpanzees and bonobos share 98.4 % of the same DNA sequence. Gorillas share 97.7% and orangutans share 96.4 of their DNA with human, chimpanzees and bonobos.
Bonobos, Orangutans, Humans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees; sharing the DNA code
pouched mammals that carry their young through infancy, young born very immature and stay in pouch until growth is finished, kangaroos, wallabies, wombats, Tasmanian devil
Marsupials
generally have a longer gestation, enables the brain to develop more, provides waste removal as well as oxygen and nutrient delivery
Placenta
Mammals in cold climates tend to have shorter and bulkier limbs, allowing less loss of body heat; longer slender limbs= allow for greater loss of body heat
Allen’s Rule
heavily pigments animals are found mostly in hot climates where there is intense sunshine; cold climates= lighter pigmentation
Gloger’s Rule
mammals that lay eggs, most primitive mammal, lay eggs with a leathery shell. By licking the tuft of hair mom produces a fatty sweaty milk; precursor to the nipple
Monotremes
Our body parts grow at different rates, which cause our body proportions to change drastically between conceptions and adulthood.
Allometric Growth
7 million at birth, 400,000 at puberty, you lose 1000 each month
Women’s Eggs Timeline