Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/95

Click to flip

95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
power
the ability of individuals or groups to impose their will upon others and make them do things even against their own wants or wishes
political organization
The way power is distributed and embedded in society; the means through which a society creates and maintains social order and reduces social disorder
band
A relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits ans specific territory and may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically independent
tribe
in anthropology, refers to a range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory
segmentary lineage system
A rare form of kin-ordered organization in which a tribal group is split into several branches made up of clans or major lineages, each of which is further divided into minor lineages and minimal lineages
chiefdom
A regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief, who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people
state
a centralized political system that has the capacity and authority to make laws and use force to maintain social order
nation
A people who share a collective identity based on a common culture, language, territorial base, and history
cultural control
control through beliefs and values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals
social control
External control though open coercion
sanctions
externalized social controls designed to encourage conformity to social norms
Original Study: Limits on Power in Bedouin Society
moral virtues gain respect, position of power has gima (social standing), tyranny not tolerated for long, Nafla faked being possessed to lead to a divorce from an unwanted marriage
law
formal negative sanctions
negotiation
use of direct argument and compromise by the parties to a dispute to arrive voluntarily at a mutual satisfactory agreement
mediation
settlement of a dispute through negotiation assisted by an unbiased 3rd party
adjudication
mediation with an unbiased third party making the ultimate decision
Anthropology Applied: Dispute Resolution and the Anthropologist
William Ury - independent negotiation specialist, Fisher and Ury co-wrote "Getting to Yes: Negotiating without Giving In" Program of Negotiation (PON) at Harvard was cofounded by these two as well
Laura Nader
1st female anthro faculty at Berkeley, known for cross cultural research on law, justice, and social control and their connection to power structures, studied Zapotecs in Mexico,
legitimacy
the right of political leaders to govern - to hold, use, and allocate power - based on the values a particular society holds
worldview
collective body of ideas that members of a culture generally share concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their reality
religion
An organized system of ideas about spiritual reality or the supernatural, along with associatied beliefs and ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and control aspects of the universe otherwise beyond their control.
spirituality
concern with the sacred, as distinguished from material matters. In contrast to religion, spirituality is often individual rather than collective and does not require a distinctive format or traditional organization
polytheism
Belief in several gods and/or goddesses (as contrasted with montheism - belief in one god or goddess
pantheon
the several gods and goddesses of a people
animism
A belief that nature is enlivened or energized by ditinct personalized spirit beings seperate from bodies
animatism
A belief that nature is enlivened or enegized by an impersonal spiritual power or supernatural potency
priest or priestess
A full time religious specialist formally recognized for his or her role in guiding the religious practices of others and for contacting and influencing supernatural powers
shaman
A person who entersan altered state of consciousness-at will-to contact and utilize an ordinarilly hidden reality in order to acquire knowlege, power, and to help others
Healing Among the Ju/'hoansi of the Kalahari
spirits affect humans by shooting them with an invisible arrows that bring misfortune. Healers have the n/um force to heal
rites of passage
rituals that mark important stages in an individual's life cycle, such as birth, marriage, and death
separation
In rites of passage, the ritual removal of the individual from society
transition
In rites of passage, isolation of the individual following separation and prior to incorporation into society
incorporation
In rites of passage, reincorporation of the individual into society in his or her new status
rites of intensification
Rituals that take place during a crisis in the life of the group and serve to bind individuals together.
imitative magic
Magic based on the principle that like produces like, aka sympathetic magic
contagious magic
Magic based on the principle that things once in contact can influence each other after the contact is broken
witchcraft
An explanation of events based on the belief that certain individuals possess an innate psychic power capable of causing harm, including sickness and death
divination
A magical procedure or spiritual ritual designed to find out about what is not knowable by ordinary means, such as foretelling the future by interpreting omens.
Reconciling Modern Medicine with Traditional Beliefs in Swaziland
In Swaziland illness is believed to caused by sorcery or loss of ancestoral protection. Traditional healings is beneficial as it causes less stress. Compromising between modern and traditional healing is a benefit
revitalization movements
Movements for radical cultural reform in response to widespread soical disruption and collective feelings of anxiety and despair
cargo cults
Spiritual movements in Melanesia in reaction to disruptive contact with Western capitalism promising resurection of deceased relatives, destruction or enslavement of white foreigners, and the magical arrival of utopian riches
art
the creative use of the human imagination to interpret, express, and enjoy life
The Modern Tattoo Community
tattoos have historically been a social sign. Otzi is the earliest found person with tattoos in the upper Paleolithic ear (10,000 to 35,000 years ago). Today is a personal identity statement.
entopic phenomena
bright, pulsating geometric forms that are generated by the central nervous system and seen in states of trance
iconic images
Visions of animals, people, and monsters seen in the deepest state of trance
folklore
A 19th century term first used to denote the unwritten stories, sayings, beliefs, and customs of the European peasants and later extended to those traditions preserved orally in all societies
folkloristics
study of folklore
myth
A sacred narrative that explains the fundamentals of human existence
legend
A story about a memorable event handed down by tradition and told as true but without historical evidence
epic
A long oral narrative, sometimes in poetry or rythmic prose, recounting the events in the life of a real or legendary person
tale
a creative narrative recognized as fiction for entertainment
motif
a story situation in a folktale
ethnomusicology
The study of a society's music in terms of its cultural setting
tonality
In music, scale systems and their modifications
Frederica de Laguna
fieldwork in Greenland and SE Alaska. revitalized the endangered culture of the Yakutat
acculturation
Massive cultural changes that people are forced to make as a consequence of intensive firsthand contact between their own group and another, often more powerful, society.
primary innovation
The creation, invention, of chance discovery of a completely new idea, method, or device
secondary innovation
A new and deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device
diffusion
The spread of certain ideas, customs, or practices from one culture to another
cultural loss
the abandonment of an existing practice or trait
acculturation
massive cultural changes that people are forced to make as consequence of intensive firsthand contact between their own group and another, often more powerful, society
genocide
the extermination of one people by another, often in the name of progress, either as a deliberate act or as the accidental outcome of activities carried out by one people with little regard for their impact on others
syncretism
In acculturation, the blending of indigenous and foreign traits to form a new system
rebellion
organized armed resistance to an established government of authority in power
revolution
Radical change in a society or culture. In the political arena, it refers to the forced overthrow of an old government and establishment of a completely new one
modernization
process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrialized societies
structural differentiation
the division of singel traditional roles that embrace two or more fuctions into two or more roles, each with a single specialized function
intergrative mechanisms
Cultural mechanisms that oppose forces for differentiation in a society; in modernizing socieities, they include formal government structures, official state idealogies, political parties, legal codes, labor and trade unions, and other common-interest associations
tradition
customary ideas and practices passed on from generation to generation, which in a modernizing society may form an obstacle to new ways of doing things
Violence against Indians in Brazil
Baniwa Gersen Luciano Santos - leader; 2 villains - racisim and impunity; increase in violence year by year
Eric R Wolf
comparitive historicial studies on peasants, power, and transforming impactof capitalism on traditional nations. Won a silver star for combat bravery, in 1990 received MacArthur 'genius' prize
multiculturalism
public policy for managing cultural diversity in a multi-ethnic society, officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a country's borders
Advocacy for the rights of indengenous people
In US an advocacy group is Cultural Survival, Inc. which helps the indingenous people adapt and inderstand what is happening.
Standardizing the Body: The Question of Choice
The average age for breast implants is 36 and has an average of 2 children. Patriarchal capitalism,
structural power
power that organizes and orchestrates the systematic interaction within and among societies, directing economic and political forces on the one hand and ideological forces that shapepublic ideas, values, and beliefs on the others.
acculturation
massive cultural changes that people are forced to make as consequence of intensive firsthand contact between their own group and another, often more powerful, society
genocide
the extermination of one people by another, often in the name of progress, either as a deliberate act or as the accidental outcome of activities carried out by one people with little regard for their impact on others
syncretism
In acculturation, the blending of indigenous and foreign traits to form a new system
rebellion
organized armed resistance to an established government of authority in power
revolution
Radical change in a society or culture. In the political arena, it refers to the forced overthrow of an old government and establishment of a completely new one
modernization
process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrialized societies
structural differentiation
the division of singel traditional roles that embrace two or more fuctions into two or more roles, each with a single specialized function
intergrative mechanisms
Cultural mechanisms that oppose forces for differentiation in a society; in modernizing socieities, they include formal government structures, official state idealogies, political parties, legal codes, labor and trade unions, and other common-interest associations
tradition
customary ideas and practices passed on from generation to generation, which in a modernizing society may form an obstacle to new ways of doing things
Violence against Indians in Brazil
Baniwa Gersen Luciano Santos - leader; 2 villains - racisim and impunity; increase in violence year by year
Eric R Wolf
comparitive historicial studies on peasants, power, and transforming impactof capitalism on traditional nations. Won a silver star for combat bravery, in 1990 received MacArthur 'genius' prize
multiculturalism
public policy for managing cultural diversity in a multi-ethnic society, officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a country's borders
Advocacy for the rights of indengenous people
In US an advocacy group is Cultural Survival, Inc. which helps the indingenous people adapt and inderstand what is happening.
Standardizing the Body: The Question of Choice
The average age for breast implants is 36 and has an average of 2 children. Patriarchal capitalism,
structural power
power that organizes and orchestrates the systematic interaction within and among societies, directing economic and political forces on the one hand and ideological forces that shapepublic ideas, values, and beliefs on the others.
hard power
coercive power that is backed up by economic and military force
soft power
pressing others through attraction and persuasion to change their ideas, beliefs, values, and behaviors.
Arjun Appadurai
territorial boundaries increasingly irrelavent with 'cultural flows', 5 scapes" Ethnoscapes, technoscapes, financescapes, mediascapes, and ideoscapes
structural violence
physical and/or psychological harm (including repression, environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, illness, premature death) caused by expoitative and unjust social, political, and economic systems
replacement reproduction
When birth rates and death rates are in equilibrium