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54 Cards in this Set

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Who is Darwin? When was he around? What is his work, what is he well known for?
Went on a famous voyage in South America aboard the Beagle. Came up with the idea of Natural Selection along with Wallace. Darwin wrote the book "On the Orgins of Species" in 1859
What is Natural Selection?
Natural Selection is the process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment.
What are two types of dating?
Absolute and Relative Dating
What is relative dating, what is absolute dating?
Relative Dating provides a time frame in relation to other strata or materials rather than absolute dates in numbers. Based on the geological study of stratigraphy. Fossils can be dated more precisely with number dates or a range of dates.
Several methods of absolute dating:
-carbon14
-Potassium argon
-Uranium series
-Thermoluminescence
-Electron spin resonance
What is Survey & Excavation?
Systematic survey provides a regional perspective by gathering information on settlement patterns over a large area.

During an excavation scientists recover remains by digging through the cultural and natural stratigraphy--use the layers of deposits that make up a site.
Neandertals?
Lived in Western Europe
130,000-28,000 Before Present
Cold adaptive
Middle Paleolithic Era
Mousterian Tools
Lived with modern humans
in France
Out of Africa II?
Also known as the "eve" theory, or replacement theory

Says anatomically modern humans (homo sapiens sapiens) evolved in Africa and then spread to other parts of the world and displaced other popullations of archaic Homo Sapiens.
What is the Multiregional Theory?
Anatomically Modern Humans evolved simultaneously in various regions of the world (There was no displacement)
When was the Neolithic Era, what happened during it?
Means "New Stone Age" and was coined to refer to techniques of grinding and polishing stone, and refers to the the orgin and impact of food production (plant cultivation and animal domestication)
What is the Costs & Benefits of Food Production?
Benefits--
-discovery and invention(textile technology(spinning and weaving), Ceramic Technology(pottery bricks, arched masonry), Metallory(smelting and casting), and trade & commerce(land & sea))

Costs
--worked longer hours
--more children, poorer health for women
--Public health declines(living with animals, diet less varied, disease spread easier)
--People died younger
--social inequality & poverty increases
--Environment begins to degrade.
What is the AAA code of ethics?
American Anthropological Association Code of Ethics approved June 1998 updated in 1999. The code states that anthropologists have an obligation to their scholarly field, to the wider society and culture, and to the human species, other species, and the environment. The Code's aim is to offer guidelines and to promote discussion and education rather than to investigate allegations of misconduct by anthropologists.
Who was Franz Boas? What did he do?
Franz Boas is the father of American Anthropology.
--Believed that an anthropologists has a duty to save or salvage cultural knowledge
--Museums should be places that preserve cultural materials
--Scientific method should be used to study culture
--fieldwork is essential
What is scientific method?
Scientific Method is a hypothesis, Data gathering to test hypothesis, draw conclusion(generate theory). Should be used to study culture
What is cultural relativism?
Cultural Relativism is the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture. Opposite of enthnocentrism.
What is ethnography?
Fieldwork in a particular culture.
What is Participant Observation?
A characteristic ethnographic technique; taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing.
What is Problem-oriented research?
Start with a problem and then research it.
What is etic and emic?
Etic-The research strategy that emphasizes the oberver's rather than the natives' explanations, categories, and criteria of significance.

emic-The research strategy that focuses on native explanations and criteria of significance.
Who was B. Malinowsk? What did he do?
(1884-1942) "the Father of Ethnography"
-ethnographys are objective scientific accounts
-all aspects of culture are intregrated and linked; impossible to write just about one cultural feature
-unerstanding emic perspective is the primary goal of ethnography
Survey Research
Charateristic research procedure among social scientists other than anthropologists. Studies society through sampling, statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection.
Culture
Traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs; distinctly human; transmitted through learning
Enculturation
The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations.
ideal and real culture
ideal culture consists of what people say they should do and what they say they do. Real culture refers to their actual behavior as obsserved by the anthropologist.
Ethnocentrism
The tendency to view ones own culture as best to judge the behavior and beliefs of cultually different people by one's own.
Cultural Relativism
The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Extreme relativism argues that cultures should be judged solely on their own standards.
Universals
Something that exsists in every culture
Generalities
Culture pattern or trait that exsists in some but not all societies.
Particularities
Distinct or unique culture trait, pattern, integration
Biological Race
There is no biological difference only phenotypical.
Social Race
A group assumed to have a biological basis but actually preceived and defined in a social context-by a paricular culture rather than by scientific criteria
U.S. Census
The U.S. Census indicates:
-racial groups & criteria has changed throughout history
-Before 2000, could choose only one race to belong to: races were considered mutually exclusive
-Preoccupation with how much "black blood" a person has
Rule of Hypodescent
one drop of "black blood" in your lineage makes you black
Race in Brazil
Can change race classification no history of hypodescent
Race in Japan
Value some races higher than others.
What are the 4 mechanisms of evolution?
Random Genetic Drift, Gene Flow, Mutation, Natural Selection
What is Bridewealth?
A customary gift before, at or after marriage from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin.
What is gender?
The tasks and activities that a culture assign to each sex.
What are the modes of production?
Foraging, Horticulture, Pastoralism, Agriculture, and Industrialism
5
What is Exogamy?
Mating and marriage outside one's kin group; a cultural universal.
What are the 3 parts of economics?
Production, Consumption, and Exchange
Endogamy?
Marriage between people of the same social group
Sex?
Biological and physical difference between males and females.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?
Theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking.
Pidgin languages/ trade languages.
The language that is formed when groups of people meet who donnot know each other's languages.
Interpretivist approach?
Culture is analyzed through what people say are their beliefs, thoughts, and ideologies.
Communitas?
Intense community spirit, a feeling of a great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness; characteristic of people experiencing liminality together
What are the 3 steps of Rituals/Rites of Passage?
Separation, Liminal(limbo), and Reintegration.
What were Wallace's 4 typologies of religion?
Shamanic, Communal, Olympian, Monotheistic
Syncretism?
Cultural mixes occur, including religious blends, that emerge from continuous contact between cultures.
Nationality
Ethnic groups that once had, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political standing (their own country)
Nation-State
An Autonomous political entity, a country like the U.S
Assimilation
The process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates; the minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it no longer exists as a seperate cultural unit.
Multiculturalism
The view of cultural diversity as something good and desirable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into dominant culture, but also into an ethnic culture.
Language
Primary means of communication for humans and it can be written, spoken, or signed.