Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/182

Click to flip

182 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The largest early literate civilization with cities and a monetary economy continuously in place for more than 2000 years
China
Homo erectus remains in China date back ____ years
1 million
Homo sapiens have been in the chinese region for the last ____ years
300 thousand
Temperate zone around the Yellow River in china was the center of _____ production beginning 8000 years ago
millet and wheat
The warmer and wetter Yangtze River tropical zone in china was the main ____ producing area beginning 7000 years ago
rice
Village state civilization in china began with the ____ Dynasty around 2000 BC and continued with only minor changes until 1949 when the ____ was established
Shang

people's republic
number of modern chinese languages
8
chinese writing system
logographic
dependence training (definition)
child rearing practices that foster compliance in the performance of assigned tasks and dependence on domestic group rather than reliance on oneself
dependence training (4 characteristics)
indulgence is shown
nursing 3-4 years
children are assigned a number of childcare and domestic tasks at an early age
aggressive and sexual behavior is discouraged
each chinese household is dominated by ______
a senior male-- makes all important decisions
chinese names (boy vs girl)
boy names would be positive or prestigious
girl names are more negative
chinese rites of passage
birth, coming of age, marriage, death
these moments are much more significant as milestones in religious history of th efamily than individual experience
birth ritual (3 steps)
formal announcements--first bath
third day--infant's head is shaved and the father formally confers the child's name
end of the first month--infant is presented at the family alter to the ancestors
chinese diet
typically vegetarian
2-3% of calorie intake derived from meat
social class (def)
groups of people in a stratified society, such as elites and commoners who share a similar level of access to resources, power, and privilege
chinese elite
2% by 1900
special dress, rigid adherence to confucian ideals and rituals
royal clan (china)
royal court contained the emperor's numerous wives
peasantry/commoners (china)
200 million by 1900
village farmers who provide most of their own subsistence
many are too poor to rent land
chinese examination system
always held open the possibility for upward mobility
prospective beauracrats could take highly competitive examinations in the confucian classics
3 exam levels (china)
provinial, national, imperial palace
importance of age distinctions in china
reflects the increased ceremonial responsibilities of older siblings in carrying out the duties of the Filal Piety, which require care for the elderly
specific roles in mourning and conducting rituals
household land in china showed a potential per capita food consumption of ____ times that of the landless
5
control of land in china
land was owned by clans which gave lineages the right to distribute land use to individual families which transferred father to son
type of reciprocity in china
balanced--giving and receiving is specific
markets in china are conducted every ____ days
5
clan (def)
named group claiming decent from common ancestor without knowing genealogical link
clan (4 characteristics)
patrilineal
specific surname
had clan temples where tablets of ancestors were kept
villages commonly dominated by a single clan
lineage (def)
descent groups whose members have their genealogical link to known common ancestry
lineage (2 characteristics)
patrilineal
very important to produce a male heir
chinese kinship formation
older or younger age relative to ego is distinguished for everyone in ego's generation (younger brother, older brother) and for everyone in higher generations
distinct terms for grandparents, parents, and sibling offspring
distinct terms are used for aunts and uncles on either side as well as siblings of the grandfather on each side
the offspring of ego's parallel counsins on his father's side of the family have specific terms, all other parallel and cross cousins are grouped
3 chinese marriage forms
monogamy
aranged
ghost marriage
right in a chinese arranged marriage
a transfer of rights between families...
rights over children
sexual rights are solely the husband's
lineage membership
before an arranged marriage in china
a go-between would determine if the horoscopes of the prospective bride and groom were compatible
chinese arranged weddings traditionally took place at _____
the groom's family home
a chinese woman's rights during an arranged marriage
retain her own surname
her birth family retained the right to intervene whenever they considered her life or well-being to be in danger
ghost marriage in china (def)
if a marriage had already been arranged but one of the individuals died before the wedding took place, the wedding would proceed so a woman would be remembered as married or so she would have a place to reside as an adult
acceptable spouses in china
different surnames and unrelated
frequently someone from a different village
no cousins
divorce in china
only initiated by husband due to wife's disobedience or failure to produce a won
divorced women were shamed
chinese dowry
• Women entered a marriage with a Dowry—a payment made by the wife’s family to the groom or the groom’s family—and could keep any money they made on their own
significance of foot binding in china
Demonstrated a man’s affluence because it meant his wife did not do heavy domestic work
primarily practiced by the elite
foot binding began b/t the ages of ______
5 and 12
foot binding promoted ____
wifely virtue for it made it difficult to walk great distances or to even leave the house
na
group in southern china
households are siblings and children of females
sexual encounters are referrd to as "visits"--take place at night at the woman's house
no obligations or exclusivity
children join mother's kin group
how chinese women could overcome poor treatment at her in-laws house
she could appeal to her family to intervene
develop female allies of well-respect women in the community so their husbands could shame the male head of the household to correct the problem
village-state civilization in china began with ______
the shang dynasty
chinese cities (3 characteristics)
were political and ceremonial centers--not economic
where the elites and their retaners lived
sustained by the labor and surplus producted from the villages
built the great wall of china
conscripted labor army
forced work
theocracy (def)
state government based on religious authority or divine guidance
chinese emperor
not a diety, but ruled with the mandate of heaven
position was inherited by the eldest son
the emperor used ritual, prayer, and sacrifice to persuade his dead ancestors to appeal to the high god
high god (china)
Ti
animatism (def)
a belief that the world is animated by an impersonal supernatural force or power which would manifest itself in people, objects and spirits
The entire animatism ideology was expressed in a complex correlative cosmology based on ______
complementary oppositions
Yin
female, earth, dark, cool, winter, valleys, passive, tigers, the color orange
Yang
male, heaven, light, hot, south, summer, mountains, dragons, the color blue
metal, wood, water, fire, earth
Water produces wood but overcomes fire; Fire produces earth but overcomes metal; Metal produces water but overcomes wood; Wood produces fire but overcomes earth; Earth produces metal but overcomes water
Ancestral Spirit belief system in china
A belief consistent with the notion that human beings are made up of two parts: a body and a vital spirit
confucianism sough to promote practical ideals of good _____, ____, and _____ that would preserve a stable system of social inequality
government
citizenship
domestic life
confucianism was institutionalized with the creation of an imperial university focused on the ____ classics written by confucius
5
confucianism because a state cult because it advocated ______ and a perpetuation of the _____ and ____ traditions of the extablished government
filial piety
ritual
political
confucianism created a form of _____ that held the empire together in the absence of overt ________
moral nationalism
political or military force
3 recognized chinese religions
confucianism
taoism
buddhism
taoism was based on the teachings of ____
lao-tzu
taoism ws concerned with all cosmic forces as well as following one's ____ and ____ duty
social and ritual
taoism appealled to the ______
commoners
confucianism appealled to the ____
elite
buddhism came to china from ____
india
buddhism is a _____ system
temple-monastic
concepts of hell, sin, karma, and judgement are part of this religion
buddhism
_____ of the contemporary world's people are identified as either hindus or islamic
one third
beginning of hindu civilization
developed after aryan invaders conquered the earlier domestic-scale residents of the ganges region and incorporated them into larger scale centralized
cold season in south asia
november through the end of februrary
hot season in south asia
march through mid june
rainy season in south asia
mid june through october
3 families of south asian language
endo-european
dravidian
sino-tibetan
infants in south asia are left in their ____ wrapped in blankets... why
cots
keeps insects off
done to avoid evil eye
will be picked up when hungry or fussy (depenedence training)
children are/aren't praised in south asia
not... they fear it will spoil them and make them not obey
control of land in south asia
indian national law decrees that sons and daughters inherit equally from the father
in reality, the sons get the most
lineage redistribute the land of the deceased to the males
distribution (reciprocity) in south asia
balanced
goods and services in south asia are sold for money determined by ____
supply and demand
ranked social status (def)
ranked scale of human worth, political and economic consequences
caste (def)
occuptionally defined groups

ascribed groups which are hierarchally ordered and distinct
4 castes in south asia (list-- know order!)
brahman
kshatriya
vaisya
sudra
brahman
lords of creation
priests, sacrificers, teachers
kshatriya
protector of people
warrior
political role
vaisya
cattle herding and trading
offering of sacrifices
sudra
serves the top three castes
lower level occupations
the lowest caste in south asia are the ___
untouchables

declared illegal in india and pakistan
members of sub castes claim common ___
founder
the ____ are defines as superior (s asia)
pure
_____ take place by those who come in contact with the untouchables
ritual purifications
_____ are localized in communities (s asia)
castes of similar rank
___ can give food to everyone but only accept it from ____ (s asia)
brahman
other brahman
muslim castes (3--list)
ashral
artisan
untouchables
ashral
descendents of muhammad and those who helped him
artisan
weavers, potters, barbers
untouchables (muslim)
sweepers
women's status in north india
prefer son over daughter
requires little agriculture labor input
females are denied education
they marry early
wife beating is common
women's status in south india
daughter is seen as economically valuable
they marry later
literacy rates are higher
what is purdah and who does it
veiling of female faces and bodies
physical seperation of living spaces by females and males
hindus and muslims
functions of purdah
creates dependency of males and females
females must rely on males while she is at home
arranged marriages may use parallel cousins
minimizes chance of adultry
marriage forms in south asia
monogamy
polygyny
polyandry
arranged
the koran allows a man to have up to ___ wives and _____ number of ______ (s asia)
4
any
concubines
ployandry occurs in less than ____ % of the world's societies
.5
in polyandry, descent is ____lineal
patri
husbands in polyandry households ____ allowed to take on another wife, particularly if ______
are
the first wife is barren
when a husband in a polyandry relationship takes on a second wife, it is often _____
the sister of their original wife
associated polyandry (def)
a woman is simultaneously married to two unrelated men
the first husband in associated polyandry is the _____
what does this mean?
principle husband
he has the most authority, but economic resources are held independently
both husbands are considered fathers to any children
fraternal polyandry (def)
a woman is simltaneously married to several brothers
fraternal polyandry (characteristics)
advantageous where resources are extremely limited
all brothers actively participate at the marriage ceremony--the oldest serves as the groom
all brothers have equal sexual access to the wife
live patrilocally
advantages of polyandry
reduces population growth and pressure on limited resources
all responsibility doesn't fall on one father
inherit a larger parcel of land and family possessions
in south asia, ___ marriage is the norm
arranged
among hindus, the father of a ____ seeks a ___-in-law
girl
son
among muslims, the father of a ___ seeks a ___-in-law
boy
daughter
among _____, cousin marriage is common (s asia)
muslims
in _____ and ____, cross-cousin marriage is preferred (s asia)
south india
sri lanka
hypergamy
low-ranked women must marry equal or higher-ranked men
marrying a man of lower rank carries a huge social stigma
hypogamy
high-ranked men marry lower-ranked women
no social stigma attached
in south asia, ____ is a ritual requirement, especially for the highest casts
chastity
sati
a 'virtuous woman' throws herself on her husband's funeral pyre to be transformed into a goddess
now illegal
funeral pyre
public burning of a body
dowry
good transferred from the bride's family to the groom's family or to the couple themselves
in case of divorce in south asia, ____ must be returned
the dowry
it is estimated that 2000 or more _____ occure every year in india
dowry deaths
dowry death
wives murdered by their husbands after they have extorted as much as possible from the brides' family
since the wife died and there was no divorce, the husband doesn't have to give the dowry back
the emergence of a ______ in modern india has inflated wory payments
consumption-based middle class
bride wealth
goods, often livestock, that are transferred from the family of the groom to the famiy of the bride
state (def)
defined in anthropology as a centralized political system with the power to coerce
a ____ political organization existed in south asia from about 1000-600 bc
chiefdom
polytheist
a belief in a multitude of super natural beings
super naturals in polytheistic religions in south asia incorporate many unversal ____ and ____
complementary oppositions
ambiguities
____ icons often combine animal and human shapes with multiple arms, heads or eyes to indicate different aspects of the deity
hindu
____ is a creator and a destroyer, benevolent and vengeful, and may be portaryed with multiple faces, three eyes, and four arms and sometimes as both male and female (hinduism)
siva
hinduism is ______
polytheistic
hinduism supports the belief in ___ and ____
karma
reincarnation
rasa
refers to the emotional pleasure that art can provide
hinduism
most important goals of the hindu good life (4)
righteousness
spirituality
prosperity
pleasure
darsan
refers to religious "seeing"
cows are considered sacred in this religion
hinduism
god's message is recorded as sacred scriputre in the koran in this religion
islam
the koran
a text based on a religious belief system transmitted in arabic directly by Allah (God) to the Prophet Muhammad beginning about AD 610
after the death of muhammad, a period of ____ began
rapid military expansion
in islam, a deep-seated belief in _____ exists
satan
in islam, man's fundamental role is one of _____
moral struggle
what happens on the last day according to islam
the dead will be resurrected and a judgment will be pronounced on every person in accordance with deeps—hellfire or paradise
five pillars of islam
recitation of the shahabad: confessions of faith
performance of five daily prayers
giving of Alms
observance of the fast of ramadam
pilramage to mecca
islamic state is based on the ___
shani'a
view of women according to islamic interpretations
females are generally viewed as inferior to men
Females are to be protected by husbands
Daughters inherit less than sons
islamic females are allowed _____ spouse(s) and males are allowed ____ spouse(s)
one
up to four
islamic females marry ______
males marry _____
muslims
any religion
the aim of religious practice (buddhism) is to be rid of the ____ or _____, thus freeing oneself from the letters of this mundane world: ____ overcomes the round of rebirths and is called ______
delusion
ego
success
enlightenment
in buddhism, a person's fundamental ____ dies and is reborn time and time agagin
consciousness
buddhism... 3 planes of existence
immaterial plane: pure spirits exist w/o material body
material plane
plane of desire: living gross material lives
four elements of buddhism
earth
water
heat
wind
in buddhims, living beings are divided in ___ categories: __ good and ___ bad
5
2
3
good living beings (buddhism)
heavenly beings
living inhabitants male and female
bad living beings (buddhism)
departed spirits, animals, hellish creatures in numerous hells
in buddhism, the ____ state is more favorable than any other attainment
human
dharmas (def)
what religion is this?
universal law which govern human existences and may be known by using reason
_____ attitude is attained by meditation of one's ____
alturistic
dharmas
indigenous peoples maintain many traits of small-scale cultures such as ___-level ____ management
community
resource
genocide (def)
extermination of human population
accidental genocide
may be accidentally carried out with little regard for imnpact on others--small pox and other illnesses
effects of past and present cultural contact on indiginous people (3)
genocide
ethnocide
ecocide
ethnocide (def)
the forced destruction of a cultural system
ethnocide is often accomplished by ____
assimilation
assimilation (def)
the loss of distinctive cultural traits as a population surrenders its autonomy and is aborbed into dominant society and culture
incorporation of indiginous cultures by a foreign culture initially causes ______
why
depopulation
because of enslavement, genocide, and the disruption of support networks
loss of political autonomy in indiginous cultures
during incorporation by a foreign culture
loss of self-government due to foreign military conquest and the extension of government control
loss of economic autonomy in indiginous cultures
during incorporation by a foreign culture
loss of self-subsistence due to territorial reduction and resource depletion followed by market dependency and impoverishment
2 reactions to forcible change (indigenous peoples being colonized)
remove themselves to the nearest available forest, desert, or other inhospitable place in an effort to escape the oppression
fight back
guanches (who are they)
original inhabitants of the canary islands
village farmers
resisted invaders until spanish gained full control
those that survived the conquest were exiled and enslaved
robriand islanders (who are they)
under british rule, they were forced to give up competitive feasting/dancing for the game of cricket
Of the numerous armed conflicts in the world today, ___% are in the economically poor countries of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America
98
political rebellion by indigenous cultures requires a ______ to rebel against
centralized authority
ecocide (def)
the degradation of an ecosystem
cash cropping (deF)
raising of crops for market sale rather than for domestic consumption
realist (def)
a humanitarian policy position that maintains that indigenous peoples must surrender their political and economic autonomy and be integrated into dominant state societies
____ was a product of colonial expansion
anthropology
indirect colonial rule (def)
where european colonial administrators appointed local natives to serve as mediating officials to help control local communities
idealist (def)
a humanitarian policy position that advocates cultural autonomy for indigenous peoples as a basic human right