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81 Cards in this Set

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What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?
It states the understandings of time and space are continued by the structure of language.
Franz Boas was from:
Germany
NAGPRA stands for
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
How does cultural anthropology differ from other social science disciplines?
Anthropologists live among the individuals they are studying rather than observing from a distance or in specializing sessions.
Ethnocentrism
The attitude that the customs and beliefs of one's own culture are superior to that of other cultures
What was the primary purpose of the Northwest Coast potlatch?
To show off prestige and wealth by redistributing goods
Bronislaw Malinowski did the majority of his fieldwork in:
Papu New Guinea
Which of the following characteristics are common to ALL languages?
A well-defined system of sounds, finite in number, all languages can be used for abstract thought, a vocabulary that can expand as necessitated by cultural change
How can the documentation of native cultures by anthropologists be problematic?
If a culture changes, people may be viewed as no longer being "native" or "traditional"
Slash and burn agriculture is often associated with what disease?
Malaria
Culture is socially transmitted and learned starting at infancy through a process called
Enculturation
A Creole language is:
An established Pidgin that has its own grammar rules
What are the four subfields of anthropology?
Linguistics
Cultural
Physical
Archaeological
A redistributive economy is where
Two individuals or groups pass objects back and forth with the goal of 1. helping someone 2. creating, maintaining or strengthening social relationships or 3. obtaining objects

Members of an organized group contribute products or money into a common pool or fund; a central authority makes decisions about how the products will be reallocated
What is on result of domestication?
Settlement size increased.
How can the study of Primatology be controversial?
It can be used to justify human behaviors including rape, male dominance and violence.
Archaeology is
the study of human past (historic and prehistoric)
CRM stands for
Cultural Resource Management
What is NOT a study for a linguistic anthropologist?
Communication between non-human primates
The first modern-looking humans evolved in __________ roughly ___________ years ago and spread throughout the world.
Africa, 150,000 years ago
Noam Chomsky speculated that
There may be a universal grammar
AAVE/BEV is
Ebonics
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis has two versions; they are:
Strong and weak
What is NOT a part of non-verbal communication?
A verbal greeting
Unilineal Evolutionists believed that
All human populations are at the same stage in cultural evolution and human biological evolution could be applied to cultures
By the early 20th century, fieldwork and ethnographic research and become the hallmark of cultural anthropology, as pioneered by:
Franz Boas
Franz Boas did NOT support
Ethnocentrism
Funtionalism
a theory in anthropology that analyzes cultural elements in terms of their useful effects to individuals or to the persistence of the whole society.
The two main proponents of Funtionalism were
Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown
A cultural anthropologist is first and foremost responsible to
The people/community they are studying
founding father of American Anthropology
Franz Boas
T/F Marc Bogioli conducted his research in rural Maine
Fasle
t/f the hunters that Bogioli conducted research with believed that hunting is important for controlling deer population
True
t/f the hunters almost universally expressed great admiration and affection for the animals they were hunting
True
t/f most of the hunters Boglioli worked with believed that it was unnatural for humans to kill wild animals
False
t/f Keith Basso studied the Northern Arapaho
False
t/f Basso found that people remain silent during interactions which could be characterized as being unpredictable or when the relationship is ambiguious.
True
Basso found that parents typically engage in conversation immediately when a child returns from boarding school
False
Basso also attributed Native American silence to lack of personal warmth
false
Basso noted that members of this group remain silent when conducting ceremonies including the Kachina and Rain dances
false
Basso indicated that people suffering from intense grief are considered to be disturbed and unstalbe
true
Julian Steward believed that technology and the environment had little effect on cultures
false
while communication among animals is critical to their survival, it is quite limited compared to human language
true
the problem of history is that it is written by people who have little understanding of cultures besides their own and subscribe to the theory of Unilineal Evolution
false
according to the tenets of Postmodernism, anthropological research can never be truly objective
true
cultural anthropologists never study their own cultures
false
What is bilateral descent?
both maternal and paternal lines are used as a basis for reckoning descent and for establishing the rights and obligations of kinship.
What is a descent group?
a group of kin who are descendants of a common ancestor, extending beyond two generations
exogamy
a rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group
totem
an animal, plant or other aspect of the natural world held to be ancestral or to have other intimate relationships with members of the group.
Unilineal descent
descent group membership based on links through either maternal or paternal line, but not both.
Ego
the person describing the family or the perspective of that person. Starting point in the kinship chart.
Matrilocal
in a matrilineal system, a matrilocal rule of residence is in place where a man goes to live with or near his wife's kin after marriage. Patrilocal is opposite.
Endogamy
a rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group
Vision Quest
a practice common among many native american groups in which individuals seek to achieve direct contact with the supernatural.
Cultural construction of gender
the idea that gender characteristics are the result of historical, economic and political forces within eachother.
Feminist anthropology
a theoretical perspective that focuses on describing and explaining the social roles of women.
Gender
a cultural construction that makes biological and physical differences between male and female into socially meaningful categories. See also cultural construction of gender.
Gender role
cultural expectations of men and women in particular societies. Include expectations about the natural abilities of a man and a woman, personality, etc. Private and natural dichotomies for women and public and cultural dichotomies for men.
Hijab
a widespread term used for the head covering worn by some Muslim women as a part of modest dress
rite of passage
a ritual that moves an individual from one social status to another. Usually from boyhood to manhood through endurance of rituals portraying masculine features.
Sex vs. Gender
sex: biologically determined
gender: culturally determined
Two spirit role
an alternative gender role in native north america
animism
the notion that all objects, living and nonliving, are imbued with spirits
contagious magic
the belief that things, once in contact with a person or object, retain invisible connections with that person or object. Ex: Voudou if clothing or hair is attached.
Cosmology
a system of beliefs that deals with the fundamental questions in the religious and social order; sets of principles or beliefs about the nature of life and death, creation, origin of society, relationships of individuals and groups to one another, etc. Give meaning to the lives of the followers or believers.
Imitative magic
the belief that imitating an action in a religious ritual will cause the action to happen in the material world. Ex: baptism
Liminal
In between stage and the actions, clothing and speech associated with it, Defined by Victor Turner. Ex: graduation or wedding.
shaman
an individual who is socially recognized as having the ability to mediate between the world of humanity and the world of the gods or spirits but who is not a recognized official of any religious organization.
Rite of intensification
a ritual structured to reinforce the values and norms of a community and to strengthen group identity
Sacred narratives
stories held to be holy and true by members of a religious tradition. Usually a moral lesson story, often explaining the questions of life such as creation. A lot of times can only be started or finished at certain times of the year
Trickster
a supernatural entity that does not act in the best interest of the humans
Civilizing mission
the notion that colonialism was a duty for the Europeans and a benefit for the colonized.
Colonialism
the active possession of a foreign territory and the maintenance of political domination over that territory.
Dutch East India Company
a joint stock company chartered by the Dutch government to control all Dutch trade in the Indian and Pacifica Oceans.
Monoculture Plantation
an agricultural plantation specializing in the large-scale production of a single crop to be sold on the market.
Basic human needs approach
projects aimed at providing access to clean water, education and health care for the poorest of the world's people
Gross National Income (GNI)
the total value of all goods and services in a country
World Bank
Officially called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, an international agency that provides technical assistance and loans to promote international trade and economic development in poor nations.
Pillage
to strip an area of money, goods or raw materials througt the threat or use of physical violence.
Modernization Theory
a model of development that predicts that nonindustrial societies will move in the social and technological direction of industrialized nations.