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69 Cards in this Set

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absolute dating
Dating techniques that establish dates in numbers or ranges of numbers; examples include the radiometric methods of 14C, K/A, 238U, TL, and ESR dating.
adaptive
Favored by natural selection in a particular environment.
Allen's rule
Rule stating that the relative size of protruding body parts (such as ears, tails, bills, fingers, toes, and limbs) tends to increase in warmer climates.
analogies
Similarities arising as a result of similar selective forces; traits produced by convergent evolution.
anthropoids
Members of Anthropoidea, one of the two suborders of primates; monkeys, apes, and humans are anthropoids.
Anthropology
The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors.
arboreal
Tree-dwelling; arboreal primates include gibbons, New World monkeys, and many Old World monkeys.
arboreal theory
Theory that the primates evolved by adapting to life high up in the trees, where visual abilities would have been favored over the sense of smell, and grasping hands and feet would have been used for movement along branches.
archaeological anthropology
The study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture's material remains.
Bergmann's rule
Rule stating that the smaller of two bodies similar in shape has more surface area per unit of weight and therefore can dissipate heat more efficiently; hence, large bodies tend to be found in colder areas and small bodies in warmer ones.
biological anthropology
The study of human biological variation in time and space; includes evolution, genetics, growth and development, and primatology.
bipedal
Two-footed; upright bipedalism is the characteristic human mode of locomotion.
brachiation
Under-the-branch swinging; characteristic of gibbons, siamangs, and some New World monkeys.
chromosomes
Basic genetic units, occurring in matching (homologous) pairs; lengths of DNA made up of multiple genes.
cultural anthropology
The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
dendrochronology
Or tree-ring dating: a method of absolute dating based on the study and comparison of patterns of tree-ring growth.
ethnicity
Identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group, and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation.
evolution
Belief that species arose from others through a long and gradual process of transformation, or descent with modification.
excavation
Digging through the layers of deposits that make up an archaeological or fossil site.
fossils
Remains (e.g., bones), traces, or impressions (e.g., footprints) of ancient life.
gene
Area in a chromosome pair that determines, wholly or partially, a particular biological trait, such as whether one's blood type is A, B, or O.
gene flow
Exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species through direct or indirect interbreeding.
genotype
An organism's hereditary makeup.
heterozygous
Having dissimilar alleles of a given gene.
holistic
Interested in the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture.
hominids
Members of the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans; many scientists now include chimpanzees and gorillas in this family.
Homo habilis
Term coined by L. S. B. and Mary Leakey; immediate ancestor of H. erectus; lived from about 2 to 1.7 m.y.a.
homologies
Traits that organisms have jointly inherited from a common ancestor.
homozygous
Possessing identical alleles of a particular gene.
linguistic anthropology
The descriptive, comparative, and historical study of language and of linguistic similarities and differences in time, space, and society.
meiosis
Special process by which sex cells are produced; four cells are produced from one, each with half the genetic material of the original cell.
melanin
Substance manufactured in specialized cells in the lower layers of the epidermis (outer skin layer); melanin cells in dark skin produce more melanin than do those in light skin.
mitosis
Ordinary cell division; DNA molecules copy themselves, creating two identical cells out of one.
mutation
Change in the DNA molecules of which genes and chromosomes are built.
natural selection
Originally formulated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace; the process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment, such as the tropics.
Oldowan
Earliest (2 to 2.5 m.y.a.) stone tools; first discovered in 1931 by L. S. B. and Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge.
paleoanthropology
Study of hominid and human life through the fossil record.
phenotype
An organism's evident traits, its "manifest biology"-anatomy and physiology.
Pleistocene
Epoch of Homo's appearance and evolution; began 1.8 million years ago; divided into Lower, Middle, and Upper.
primatology
The study of fossil and living apes, monkeys, and prosimians, including their behavior and social life.
Proconsul
Early Miocene genus of the pliopithecoid superfamily; the most abundant and successful anthropoids of the early Miocene; the last common ancestor shared by the Old World monkeys and the apes.
prosimians
The primate suborder that includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
race
An ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis.
relative dating
Dating technique, for example, stratigraphy, that establishes a time frame in relation to other strata or materials, rather than absolute dates in numbers.
remote sensing
Use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on the ground.
sexual dimorphism
Marked differences in male and female anatomy and temperament.
sexual dimorphism Marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals.
sexual selection
Based on differential success in mating, the process in which certain traits of one sex (e.g., color in male birds) are selected because of advantages they confer in winning mates.
stratigraphy
Science that examines the ways in which earth sediments are deposited in demarcated layers known as strata (singular, stratum).
survey research
Characteristic research procedure among social scientists other than anthropologists. Studies society through sampling, statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection.
terrestrial
Ground-dwelling; baboons, macaques, and humans are terrestrial primates; gorillas spend most of their time on the ground.
Uniformitarianism
Belief that explanations for past events should be sought in ordinary forces that continue to work today.
visual predation theory
Theory that the primates evolved in lower branches and undergrowth by developing visual and tactile abilities to aid in hunting and snaring insects.
Herodotus
Father of History
James Ussher
Biblical scholar who claimed to find the exact time creationism was started
Carl Linnaeus
1700s created first comprehensive classification of plants and animals
Charles Lyell
father of geology, coined term uniformitarianiam
Jacque Boucher de Perthes
Hand Axes
Gregor Mendel
discovered traits are passed along through chromosomes and genes
Seriation
method in relative dating in which artifacts of numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order.
Law of independent assortment
primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children, and underly much of genetics.
Genetic drift
change in genetic evolution due to chance 75
Stereoscopic vision
ability to see in depth.
Prosimians
the most primitive extant primates; they represent forms that were ancestral to monkeys, apes and humans.
Platyrrhines
New world monkeys
Ardipithecus ramidus
4.4mya
Australopithecus afarensis
lucy 3.8-3mya
Australopithicus africanus
3-2.5mya
Paranthropus robustus
2-1.2mya
Prognathism
forward-slanting facial profile