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124 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cultural adaptation
A system of ideas, actions, and technologies that allow people to survive within a particular environment
Ecology
Biological term- the study of how organisms interact with each other and their physical surroundings
Human Ecology
How people interact with their environment
Cultural Ecology
interacting of culture (or culture group) with environment
Cultural Areas
A geographic region consisting of cultures that follow similar patterns of life
People of a Culture Area Share (3)
• Environmental 1.challenges
2.Resources
3.Technologies
Culture Core
Features that is fundamental in a society’s way of making a living
Culture Core examples (4)
1.Techniques for food production
2.Knowledge of resources
3.Work practices
4.Distribution practices/ principles of exchange
Taboo
a social custom prohibiting a particular practice
Ethnoscientist
study reasons for native idea systems
(Why these things are considered taboo)
Methods of Food Acquisition (5)
1.Food Foraging
2.Food Production
3.Horticulture
4.Pastoralism
5.Agriculture
Food Foraging
Finding your food-
Hunting, Fishing, Gathering, Collecting
Food Production (3)
Horticulture
Pastoralism
Agriculture
Horticulture (3)
1.Simple technology
2.Fields not permanently cultivated
3.Slash-n-burn (swidden) techniques
Pastoralism
1.Herders that focus on goats, sheep, cattle, camels, yak, etc.
2.Use herds for food as opposed to labor
3.Either nomadic or transhumance
Agriculture (3)
1.Uses more land intensively and continuously
2.May use domesticated animals, irrigation, and/or terracing
3.More densely populated
Three basic elements of social organization
related to subsistence strategy (3)
1. Acquisition
2. Distribution
3. Consumption
Aquisition
how is it acquired
Ditribution
how people get there hands on the people once acquired
Consumption
how people get there hands on the people once acquired
Foraging:
Sexual Division of Labor
Men: hunt, butcher, build
Women: gather, cook, child care
Foraging:
Food Sharing
Ensure variety of foods for all
Ensure food availability for all
Foraging:
Camp
Central location for consumption
Foraging:
Egalitarian Society
Among foraging groups- everyone is equally poor
Economy
a system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources
Economics
study of such systems
Economic Anthropology questions (2)
1. What are the systems of economic behavior?

2. What are the motives of the individual?
Systems of economic behavior
(3)
1.Production
2.Distribution
3.Comsumption
Economic behavior-
Production
A set of social relations through which labor is deployed…
Divisions of labor by culture
• Sex
• Age
Economic behavior-
Distribution
1.Market Principle
Goods are purchased at money price
2.Redistribution
Goods are centralized then distributed to all
3.Reciprocity
Exchange between social equals
Three degrees of reciprocity
1.Generalized
-no expectation of return
2.Balanced
-expect return, though not immediate
3.Negative
-based on deceit
Marriage
socially approved (generally legal) sexual and economic union between individuals include: reciprocal rights and obligations b/w spouses and future children
Nuer
An only daughter can be considered a “social male
Genitrix
Biological Mother
Genitor
Biological Father
Pater
Social father
Mater
Social Mother
Incest taboos
restrictions against sex or marriage with certain individuals
o Related individuals
Why incest taboos? (3)
1.Biological Problems
2.Attempt and contempt
(Westermarck effect)- Adults are not sexually attracted to those they grew up with
3.Marry out or die out
Westermarck effect
Adults are not sexually attracted to those they grew up with
Exceptions to incest taboos
Royal incest
- Among Polynesians:
 Marriage partners should have commensurate mana
Mana= luck, degree of power
- Consolidates Royal Wealth
Common Marriage Practices:
• Exogamy
Practice of marry someone from outside one’s group
Common Marriage Practices:
• Endogamy
Practice of marrying someone within your group
o Group= cult, religion, community… etc
Cousin Marriages
In some groups, people are expected to marry within their own family
o Often a first cousin
Cross-cousins
Children’s of parent’s opposite sex siblings
• Father’s sisters children
• Mother’s brother’s children
Parallel cousins
Children of parent’s same sex siblings
o -father’s brothers children
o mother’s sisters children
Levirate
Custom whereby a man is obligated to marry his brother’s widow
Sororate
Custom whereby a woman is expected to marry her diseased sister’s husband

o Common form of second marriage
Arranged Marriages
Future bride and groom do not participate in decision
Why arranged marriages
Family Unification
Unites two families
Young are inexperience
Mate selection is important
Dowry
Common Europe and Asia
Money/ property given by bride’s family to groom
Her “inheritance” is transferred to the groom
o Girl’s share of family inheritance
Bride Price
Opposite of dowry
Groom (or groom’s family) gives things of value to bride’s family
Interpreted as a “bride purchase”
Compensation of loss of daughter for bride’s family
Bride Service
Groom works for in-laws for set time
Monogamy
Single spouse
Polygamy
Multiple spouses
Polygyny
Multiple wives, one husband
o Having multiple wives is a status symbol, they can afford to have many wives
Polyandry
Multiple husbands, one wife
Why Polygyny?
1. Even with multiple partners, the female can only have one child at a time

2. Males have more to gain from polygamous marriages
Why Polyandry?
1. low female population – infanticide
2. men travel
3. property distribution
Keeps from spiting up property
Residence Rules (4)
1.Patrilocal residence
2.Matrilocal residence
3.Neolocal residence4
4.Ambilocal residence
Patrilocal residence
Woman goes to live with her husband in his community
Matrilocal residence
Man goes to live with his wife in her community
Neolocal residence
Marry couple establishes a new household in a new locality
(most common is US today)
Ambilocal residence
Couple goes to live in either wife’s or husband’s community
Types of Households (2)
1.Nuclear Family Household
2.Extended Family Household
Nuclear Family Household
Heterosexual couple and kids
Extended Family Household
Large household group pf related individuals
(blood, marriage, other ties) 3 generations
Family of orientation
Family one grows up in; usually what we see as normal
Family of procreation
Established when one marries and has children
Descent group
Publicly recognized social entity (i.e. group) to which membership of based on the claim of common ancestry
Two types of descent group
1. Lineage
2. Clan
Lineage
A corporate descent group of consanguineous relatives who share a common, known ancestor and associate with each other for a shared purpose
Unilineal descent
Descent is traced through one line- male or female
Ambilineal descent
Descent is traced through either male or female line, the individual chooses lineage
Bilateral (Double) descent
Descent is traced through male and female line
Patrilineage
Traced through male line
Daughters leave when they marry
Patrilineage- live in husbands community

o Apical ancestor
Last known ancestor
Matrilineage
Traced through female line
Son leaves to marry
Matrilocal- live in wife’s community
Clan
Believes they share a common ancestor
- often mythical
Several lineages

Long history
Types of Relatives (3)
1.Lineal
2.Collateral
3.Affinal
Lineal relative
relatives of your lineage
Collateral relative
those who are blood relative but trace there descent through a different relative
Affinal
those related through marriage
Generation Terminology
Identifies relatives by generation and sex
2 terms in parental generation
Mom and dad
Lineal Teminology
Disguishes between lineal and collateral realtives by generation
4 terms for parent’s generation
Mom, Dad, Aunt, and Uncle
Bifurcate Merging Terminology
Identifies realtives based on side of family and generation but MERGES parent’s same-sex siblings under one term.
4 terms in parental generation
Bifurcate Collateral
Identifies differences between mothers and fathers side, sex, and generation
6 terms in parental generation
Political Organization
The way order is maintained in society
Includes power distribution
Power
Transformative capacity
- The ability to transform a given situation
Uncentralized Political Systems (2)
Band
Tribe
Band
Small (few dozen members- few hundred)
Kin-ordered
Mobile within fixed territory
Food foragers- hunters and gathers
*Oldest form of human political organization
Tribe definition
A range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor
Tribe facts
100’s of members- larger than bands
Descent-based
Villages
Some food productions
- horticulture
- pastoralism
Big-Man
person of influence, status, no real formal power
Speaks for the tribe, do some act to gain prestige
Centralized Political Systems
(2)
Chiefdom
State
Chiefdom definiton
Political system comprised of 2 or more local groups organized under a single chief
Chiefdom facts
Relatively large- Thousands of people
Socially stratified- closed to the chief, maintain a higher status, rules for life, royalty is typically pasted down through family, responsible for warfare, law enforcement,
Hierarchical
Often unstable
State defintion
centralized political system that can (and does) make and enforce laws to maintain social order
State facts
Very large: tens of thousands (and up)
Control held by multiple people- departments
Relatively unstable (in the long term)
Nation
a common history, culture, people who share a collective identity based on a common culture, language, territory, and history
Obi
male political head
Omu
female political head
Religion
The Hallmark of Religion
• Belief in the supernatural
o Not subject to the laws of nature
Three categories of supernatural beings
1. Major deities
2. Ancestral spirits
3. Non-human spirit beings
Major deities
gods and goddesses
Major deities:
Monotheism Religion
Belief in a single almighty powerful god
Major deities:
Polytheism
Collection of gods, controlling different aspects of the world
Ancestral spirits
Human consist of 2 parts: body and spirit
African societies: well developed idea of spirits
If annoyed: send sickness or death
Eventually reborn into lineage
Common in societies with strong descent based groups
Non-human spirit beings
Not major deities; not human spirits
Spirits/ghosts that aren’t representations of humans
Non-human spirit beings:
Animism
Belief that nature is animated by spirits
Combines beings and forces
Beings= gods, ancestors, ghosts, etc.
Forces= impersonal powers- magic, luck, mana, etc.
Dayak, Borneo=
Hudog
hornbill , a mask of an endangered bird
Cultivate rice; hold a feast to prevent rice crop failure- perform dance to scare off, and happy tears to moisten to the earth
Magic
Supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims- calling upon this spirits to manipulate
Imitative magic
create something to imitate the object you want to cast a spell on
Contagious magic
influence the person through contact, body part, clipping of hair, something they owned- direct contact with the individual
Religious Practitioners (2)
1.Shaman
2.Priest
Shaman
Part-time religious practitioner- claims to have power obtained from a supernatural, through contain, near death experience and received the power, non-conformist, don’t represent a group
Priest
Represents a group to the supernatural, rather than representing themselves, they represent a group- serves as an intermediate
Minister, priest, reverend, rabbi, etc.
Rites of Passage (3 steps)
Separation- ritualistic removal of society

Transition- isolation, training, ordeal

Incorporation- returned to society in new status
Rites of intensification
Rituals intended to bolster a natural process or to reaffirm a society’s set of values and briefs
During a time of crisis, come together fix there relationship
Theories for disease causation (2)
1.Naturalistic
2.Supernatural
Naturalistic
Scientific- germ theory, can identify the disease
Non-scientific- look to natural causes, like being in the rain without a hat
Supernatural:
Animistic
results of supernatural forces
Supernatural:
Personalistic
another person directly manipulated supernatural forces to hurt someone
Disease
Biological term-
Physiological disruption in body function
Causes by number of things- germs, virus, cancer
Illness
Cultural term-
Temporary rollone assumes when one cant fulfill normal roles