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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the benefits of living in groups?
*Safety in numbers
*More access to mates
*Better access to resources
What are some anti-predator strategies?
Detection: Alert other group members
Deterrence: Scaring enemies away with a large group
Dilution: Getting lost in a crowd.
Interspecific Associations
When the presence of two different species is beneficial to both
The distribution of resources affects the degree of intergroup competition
When are resources most likely to be defended?
When they are clumped together and valuable.
Intragroup Competition
Competition within a group; produces dominance
Scramble competition
Competition over dispersed, low value resources
Contest Competition
Competition over valuable, clumped resources
What will cause a mother to abandon offspring?
*If the offspring has a chance of surviving without help.
*If the offspring reduces the ability for the mother to care for other offspring.
Active during the day and night
What are the consequences of living in a group?
*More competition for food and mates
*Vulnerability to disease
*Conspecific problems such as cannibalism and/or incest
Study of how ecological pressures and natural selection shape social organizations
Remaining with birth groups. Either males or females must leave their natal groups
What is the focus of female reproductive fitness?
What is the focus of male reproductive fitness?
When will males invest in their offspring?
*When finding additional mates is difficult
*When the offspring cannot survive without him
Intersexual Selection
Traits that attract members of the opposite sex.
Intrasexual Selection
Traits that can be used to fight members of the same sex
Sexual Dimorphism
Physical differences between the sexes.
Mating systems
The way animals find mates and care for their offspring.
Why is rank/dominance so important for females?
*Better access to food
*Able to stay in their natal groups
*Offspring benefit too
Sexually Dimorphic
A species varies in size according to gender.
What sort of traits are favored by intersexual selection?
*Traits that benefit the female
*Traits that indicate good genes.
*Traits that are appealing (Even if it is maladaptive)
Period when females are fertile
Sexual Selection Infanticide Hypothesis
If a dominant male is kicked out, the new dominant male will kill any infants. This gives the male more time to mate with the females.
How do females protect their young from infanticide?
*Enlisting the help of another male
*Mating with multiple males so the parentage of the infant is unclear.
When is sexual dimorphism most pronounced?
In one male, multifemale groups. This makes it easier for the male to keep the females in control.
When does natural selection favor high sperm production?
In multimale, multifemale groups. This makes it easier for a male to impregnant anyone he mates with.
When will males gaurd their mates?
In monogomaus species, because there are no other females available, and other males may come and try to mate with her.
Dyadic Interaction
Interaction between 2 individuals
Selfish Interaction
Benefits the actor, but harms the recipient
Altruistic interaction
Harms the actor, but benefits the recipient
Mutualistic interaction
Benefits both the actor and the recipient
Spiteful Interaction
Harms both the actor and the recipient
Social interactions
Actions that affect the fitness of more than one individual
Hamilton's Rule
If the benefit of the recipient and the degree of relatedness to the actor are greater than the cost to the actor, than an altruistic act may be performed.
BxR >C
Coefficient of relatedness
The probability that two individuals will acquire the same allele through descent from a common ancestor (How close of kin they are)
Phenotypic Matching
Recognizing kin by physical similarities
What are some contextual clues that can be used to recognize siblings?
*Physical similarities
Maternal kin group
Reciprocal Altruism
Two individuals take turns performing altruistic acts.
What qualifications must be met before a reciprocal altruism can be established?
*The individuals must interact often
*The individuals must remember the altruistic actions
*The individuals must support only those who help them.
Life History Theory
Life is a series of trade-offs
A larger brain = longer life
Reproduction/Growth & Maintenance
Earlier reproduction takes away from growth and development, thus minimizing lifespan.
If a trait emerges that enhances fertility but shortens lifespan, it will be favored because more offspring will result.
Fast/Short Life History
Reproduce at a younger age
Small body
Small brain
Short gestation times
Large litters
High rates of mortality
Short life spans
Slow/Long Life History
Reproduce later in life
Large body
Large brain
Long gestation times
Small litters
Low rates of mortality
Long life
What makes a life history change?
Ecological pressures
Social Intelligence Hypothesis
Intelligence is associated with the need to interact with social groups
What are some reasons for advanced intelligence in primates?
*The need to extract food
*The need to interact with social groups
*The need for flexibility and adaptation
Part of the brain associated with problem solving and flexibility
Executive Brain Ratio
Measures how long the executive brain (which contains the neocortex) is, in comparison to the whole brain.
Tactical Deception
The ability to manipulate others without using force
What are some examples of ecological knowledge?
*Recognizing appropriate food items and knowing where to find them
*Cognitive maps
What are some examples of social knowledge?
*Ability to recognize family
*Redirected aggression
*Ability to recognize rank
*Forming coalitions
*Ability to understand relationships of third-parties
*Ability to use their knowledge to predict what others might do, and adjust their behavior accordingly.
Theory of Mind
Ability to be aware of the thoughts, knowledge, and perceptions of other individuals, and to use this knowledge to make predictions as to what they might do.
Redirected Aggression
A= High ranking monkey
a= Low ranking relation to A
b= Low ranking monkey

If A attacks b, b will attack a because a is a lower ranking relation to A.