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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do humans communicate with each other?
through touch, gesture, posture, and language.
A system of symbolic communication using sounds or gestures that are put together according to certain rules, resulting in meanings that are based on agreement by a society and intelligible to all who share.
How is language related to culture?
Social variables such as age, gender, and economic status may influence how people use language. People also communicate what is impt. to them which is largely defined by culture.
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language.
instinctive sounds or gestures that have a natural or self-evident meaning
signs, emblems, and other things that represent something else in a meaningful way.
the branch of linguistics that involves unraveling a language by recording, describing, and analyzing all of its features.
descriptive linguistics
facial expressions and bodily postures and motions that convey intended as well as subconscious messages
A system of natating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body motions that convey messages.
The cross cultural study of humankind's perception and use of space. (ex: personal space established around their bodies)
in paralanguage the background characteristics of a speaker's voice, including pitch, articulation, tempo, and resonance. (ex: being delighted about something)
voice qualaties
In paralanguage, vocalizations such as laughing, crying, yawning, or "breaking", which the speaker "talks through" (ex: yawning while talking can indicate boredom)
vocal characterizers
In paralanguage, vocalizations that resemble the sounds of language but do not appear in Sometimes called "oh oh expressions" (ex: giggles and sobs)
vocal segregates
a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken work is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning (ex: chinese mandarin)
tonal language
the branch of linguistics that studies the histories of and relationships among languages, both living and dead
historical linguistics
In linguistics, a method for identifying the approximate time that languages branched off from a common ancestor, it is based on analyzing core vocabularies
a branch of linguistics that studies the relationship between language and culture
varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes, and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible (ex: Chinese of Beijing)
A dialect spoken by inner-city african american, highly structured mode of speech
African American Vernacular English (ebonics)
When did the first writing system appear?
4,000 years ago
the systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language
the smallest unit of sound that make a difference in meaning in a language
The smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language. They are distinct from phonemes, which can alter meaning, but have no meaning by themselves.
the patterns or rules for the formation of phrases and sentences in a language
the entire formal structure of a language, including morphology and syntax
The process of changing from one language of dialect to another (ex: spanglish)
code switching
Are chimpanzees capable of spoken language?
yes, they are capable of sign langage
How do non-human primates communicate?
through gestures or signs
Who invented the first alphabet?
Semitic-speaking peoples in region of Egypt.
the process by which culture is passed from one generation to the next through which individuals become members of their society.
the ability to perceive oneself as a unique phenomenon in time and space and to judge one's own actions.
When do North Americans develop self-awareness?
When the child is 2.
the distinctive way a person think, feels, and behaves.
Why do anthropologists study anthropology?
to find out how one learns
Child-rearing practices that foster compliance in the performance of assigned tasks and dependence on the domestic group rather than reliance on oneself. (ex: extended families)
dependence training.
Child-rearing practices that promote independence, self-reliance, and personal achievement on the part of the child. (ex: baby being on home instead of with mother 80% of time)
independence training
those values especially promoted by a particular culture.(ex: kin ties)
core values.
People born with reproductive organs, genitalia, and/or sex chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female.
People who cross-over or occupy a culturally accepted intermediate position in the binary male-female gender construction.
A notion held that the newborn human was like a blank slate, and what the individual became in life was written on the slate by his or her life experiences.
tabula rasa theory
Who are the agents of enculturation?
members of the household into which a person is born
Environment in which the self acts also involves spatial orientation, temportal orientation, and normative orientation.
behavioral environment
Who is Margaret Mead?
North American Anthropologist
Where did she do her fieldwork?
Papua, New Guinea
What is so relevant about her fieldwork for the understanding of gender roles?
relations between men and women were expected to be equal.
What does the studies of child-rearing practices among the Ju’/hoansi of Africa indicate?
indicates 2 different patterns, dependence training and independence training.
When do the Aymara Indians consider a child "truly human"?
until they have given it a name
What is the core values to which European Americans subscribe the most?
"Rugged individualism"
Mental disorders specific to particular ethnic groups. (ex: paranoid schizophrenia)
ethnic psychoses
a culturally constructed mental illness, fail to conform to a culturally defined range of normal behavior.
A fear reaction in which a hunter becomes anxious and agitated, convinced that he is bewitched. Fears cetner on his being turned into a cannibal by the power of a monster with an insatiable craving for human flesh.
Is Windigo considered ethnic psychosis?
yes, because it is culturally specific.
refers to the beneficial adjustments of organisms to their environment, a process that not only leads to changes in the organisms but also impacts their environment.
How do humans adapt?
humans develop ways of doing things that are compatible with the resources they have available to them and within the limitations of the various habitats in which they live.
A complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive. (Ex: Tsembaga people of Papua, New Guinea)
cultural adaptation
A system, or a functioning whole, composed of both the natural environment and all the organisms living within it.
In cultural evolution, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by different peoples with different ancestral cultures. (ex: Cheyenne indians)
convergent evolution
In cultural evolution, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by peoples whose ancestral cultures were already somewhat alike. (ex: development of farming in SW Asia and Mesoamerica)
parallel evolution
the dynamic interaction of specific cultures with their environments.
culural ecology
hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods
food foraging
the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques
carrying capacity
the number and intensity of interactions among the members of a camp
density of social relations
The profound culture change associated with the early domestication of plants and animals.
Neolithic revolution
Who coined the term Neolithic revolution?
Gordon Childe
the cultivation of crops with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
crop cultivation using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals.
intensive agriculture
Breeding and managing of herd of domesticated grazing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, llamas, or camels.
Among pastoralists, the grazing of animals in low steppe lands in the winter and then moving to high pastures on the plateaus in the summer
Where did the Aztec live and what was the name of the capital of the empire?
in Mexico and the capital was Tenochtitlan
Is sickle cell anemia a genetic mutation that has adapted to a particular environment?
yes it is, but only in malarial areas.
Where do we find food foragers today?
in the Great Plains, Southern Africa, and Australia
Also known as slash-and-burn. An extensive form of hortiuculture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops then planted among the ashes.
swidden farming
What kind of techonology do horticulturalists use?
simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
Why type of technology does intensive agriculture use?
irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals.
What are the most important characteristics about the food-producing way of life?
tool making allowed humans to consume significant amounts of meat as well as plant foods.
When did the transition from food foraging to food producing take place?
10,000 years ago.
How do anthropologists study economic systems?
study of capitalist market economies
Study the means by which goods are produces, distributed, and consumed in the context of the total culture of particular societies.
economic system
What are the productive resources used by all societies to produce goods and services?
labor, raw materials, and technology
Why is American society’s gender division of labor considered to have a pattern of rigid segregation?
biological factors
a societal obligation compelling a family to distribute goods so that no one accumulates more wealth than anyone else. (ex: cargo systems)
leveling mechanisms
the exchange of goods and services, of approximately equal value, between two parties. (ex: gift giving)
a form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated. (ex: taxes)
the buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand. (ex: marketplace)
market exchange
a mode of exchange in which the value of the gift is not calculated, nor is the time of repayment specified (ex: gift giving)
generalized reciprocity
a mode of exchange in which the giving and receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and time of their delivery.
balanced reciprocity
A form of balanced reciprocity that reinforces trade relations among the seafaring Trobriand people who inhabit a large ring of islands in the southern Pacific off the eastern coast of Papua New Guinea, and other Melanesians.
Kula Ring
A term coined by Thorstein Veblen to describe the display of wealth for social prestige
conspicuous consumption
What is a "Big Man"
a prestigous, high powered man
which anthropologists describe the Kula Ring first?
Bronsilaw Malinowski
Describe the division of labor by age among the Ju/'hoansi
children are not expected to contribute significantlyto subsistence until their late teens
Describe the division of labor by age among the Maya
children look after brothers and sisters as well as doing housework.
a form of exchange in which the giver tries to get the better of the exchange. (ex: deception)
negative reciprocity