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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of the human kind in all times and places
the human species, its ancestors, and near relatives
judging other cultures through ur own culture
People in the same family that engage in anal sex
What are 4 of the subfields of anthropology
- Physical Antrhopology
- Archaeology
- Cultural Anthropology
- Linguistics
study of humans as biological organisms
physical anthropology or biological anthropology
study material remains such as fossils in order to describe and explain human behavior
study of cultural behavior (mostly present)set of values, make theories on human nature.
cultural anthropology
study of language
linguistic anthropology
humans evolved from creatures that look like monkeys
human evolution
field that studies the anantomy of primates
variation such as height, body build, skin color, blood type
growth development
study of genes and genetic relationships
molecular anthroplogy
How many yrs ago were diamonds found in a mine?
200 yrs ago
How many yrs ago did Malaria start and how?
10,000 yrs ago from mosquitos
study of the origins and predecesors ot the present human species
field of applied physical anthroplogy that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes
forensic anthropology
Anything that has been used, manufactured, or transformed by humans (ex.ceramic vase, remains of home)
any organism that has been preserved in the air. Must be immediately buried. Become hard, usually covered under something (ice, amber)
yellow resin that covers fossils
What do both archaeologists and paleoanthropolgists do?
they both dig at sites
any area that gives u evidence of past human activity. ( to discover site: change in vegetation, soil markings, on surface u can see artifacts, artificial mount). Identify by walking, satellites, and area photographs.
part of archaeological excavation in which u get point of reference to take measurements
datum point
part of archaeological excavation in which u equally divide site into smaller squares
grid system
different layers, most reliable method of relative dating by means of strata
helps us determine human behavior
context (association)
What do bones absorb over time?
a conclusion based on layers (Ex: purses, Biggest ones are newest b/c on top, and smallest ones are oldest b/c on bottom)
uses a lot of chemistry and physics to see how things are
radioactive substance
14C Dating
Used in SW U.S. mostly, has special effect on trees. Each ring on a tree represents growth within a year. (Use to determine wood on house, and age of house). Not all ppl use it b/c not a reliable environment.
How many years does it take for half of 14C to convert into nitrogen?
5,730 yrs.
excellent for old materials b/c works only with volcanic materials b/c when hot they release potassium.
Potassium-Argon (K-A Dating)
part of the mammals, contain opposable thumbs, sense of vision, sense of moving, and brain became more complex
super family, refer to humans, chimps, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons, and siamangs.
only brain with large and complex characteristics, incredible use of sense organs, and behaviors
primate brain
important because need to adapt to trees and important for survival
binocular stereoscopic vision
Develop clavical, shoulder, and other bones different from any other primates or animals.
Brachiation Scapular Clavival
teeth, do not have specialized. Include front teeth, molars, and others.
eating anything we can find, (meat, plants, anything we could find in trees)
humans and apes are only apes that can engage in sexual activity anytime. Some primates engage in sexual activity when female is going through ovulation. (bonobos are only animals besides humans that engage in oral sex and can be homosexual, and also kiss with their tongues.)
What group leaves and travels together in a particular geographical area called communities. (bonobos and chimps if 50 or more.) Females have higher power.
families (20 or more). Male dominant.
how to apes bond?
by grooming each other and removing insects from each others coats.
How do apes communicate?
Apes have series of call signals for danger and group needs to be gathered and used for defense
building blocks of protein
amino acids
why are gorillas energy levels very slow?
because of the amino acids
Site in East Africa, huge whole in ground (sort of like Grand Canyon)
Oldovai gorge
First tool makers, bones found at Oldovai Gorge that was different from any other.
What were the 2 tools found at Oldovai Gorge?
Choppers and Flakes
tool that was able to butcher an animal
tool with a sharp edge with small teeth used to cut plants and meat
Where did we most likely derive from?
Australopithecus Afarensis (4MYA)
biologically there are some tasks men do and some tasks that women do. (traditional view, very biased)
division of labor by sex
Take into consideration that certain roles are assumed because your culture tells u so, and that function takes into consideration the influence of culture and the influence of environment.
division of labor by gender
What trait was established very early in human evolution?
What is the earliest specie?
homo hibilis
Who had similar ideas to Darwin?
female reproductive organs become swollen
very distinct climate, specific biological are.
Iconological Niche
evolution abouve the species level
the process of formation of new species
factors that separate breeding populations thereby preventing gene flow
isolating mechanisms
sustained directional shift in a populations average characteristics
characteristics possessed by an organism or group of organisms due to shared ancestry
process by which unrelation populations develop similarities to one another
convergent evolution
movement of continents embedded in underlying plates on the earths surface
continental drift
species way of life considered in the full context of its environment including other species found in that environment
ecological niche
rapid diversification of an evoloving population as it adapts to a variety of available niches
adaptive radiation
possessing characteristics that are advantageous in future environmental conditions
reproduction involving the production of relatively few offspring with high parental investment in each
reproduction involving the production of large numbers of offspring with relatively low parental investment
hypothesis that dates of divergences among relation species can be calculated through an examination of the genetic mutation that have accrued since the divergence
molecular clock
first well-known hominin, lived between 4.4 and 1 MYA
space between he canines and other teeth allowing large projecting canines space within the jaw