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175 Cards in this Set

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anthropology
the study of humankind from a broad perspective, especially focusing on the biological and cultural diferences and similarities between populations and societies, of both the past and the present
five main subfields of anthropology
physical anthropology,archaeology, cultural anthropology, anthropological linguistics and applied anthropology
physical anthropology(biological anthropology)
investigate the evolution of the human species, the behavior and anatomy of monkeys and apes,a and the ohysical variations among and between human groups
paleoanthropology
the investigation of human biological evolution
primatology
the study of the evolution, anatomy, adaptation, and social behavior of primates
human variation
differences and similarities among the world's peoples in physical characteristics
forensic anthropologists
phsical anthropologists who identify and analyze human skeletal remains
archaeology
the study of the human past by excavating and analyzing material remains
prehistoric archaeology
field that uses excavation of sites and analysis of material remains to investigate cultures that existed before the development of writing
historic archaeology
field that investigates the past of literate peopls through excavation of sites and analysis of artifacts and other material remains
cultural anthropology(ethnology)
the study of contemorary and historically recent human societies and cultures
fieldwork
ethnographic research that involves observing and interviewing the members of a culture to describe their contemporary way of life, provides ethnologists with firsthand experience
ethnography
a written account about how a single population lives
anthropological linguistics
subfield that focuses on the interrelationships between language and other aspects of a peoples culture
applied anthropology
subfield whose practitioners use anthropological methods, theories and concepts to solve practical real-world problems; practitioners are often employed by a government agency or private organization
medical anthropology(applied anthropology)
medical anthropologists are trained to investigate the complex interactions among human health, nutrition, social enviroment, and cultural beliefs and practices
development anthropology(applied anthropology)
development anthroplogists provide information on communities that help agencies adapt projects to local conditions and needs, often work in the third world
educational anthropology(applied anthropology)
some roled of eduaction anthropologists include bilingual education, conducting detailed observations of classroom interaction, training personnel in multicultural issues, and adapting teaching styles to local customs and needs
corporate anthropology(applied anthropology)
hired professionals who can advise executives and sales staff on what to expect and how to speak and act when they conduct business in other countries
anthropology’s focus
human diversity: 1) humans differ somewhat in their genetic heritage, making human diverse biologically 2) huamns are diverse culturally
holistic perspective
the assumption that any aspect of a culture is integrated with other aspects, so that no dimension of culture can be understood in isolation
comparative perspective
the insistence by anthropologists that valid hypotheses and theories about humanity be tested with data from a wide range of cultures
cultural relativism
no culture is inherently superior to any other culture
ethnocentrism
the belief that the moral standards, manners, attitudes and so forth of one's own culture are superior to those of another cultures
kin group
refers to people who view themselves as relatives, who share a common identity based on thier kin ties, and who cooperate in certain activities
domestic group
refers to individuals who live together in a single household
consanguine
lood relatives, people related by birth
affine
inlaws, people related by marriage
nuclear family
a family unit consisting only of parents and unmarried children
marriage
1. forms the social bonds and creates the social relationships that provide for the material needs, social support, and enculturation of children 2. defines the rights and obligations the couple have toward each other and toward other people 3. creates new realtionships between families and other kinds of kin groups
incest taboo
prohibition against sexual intercourse between certain kinds of relatives, a part of every culture
nayar marriage
don't actually get married,get "married" may never see "husband" again, begin to recieve nighttime male visitors, children join kin groups of thier mothers
exogamy
an individual is prohibited from marrying within thier own family or other kin group
endogamy
an individual must marry someone in their own social group ex. orthodox jews, amish
de facto endogamy
although no formal rules prohibit outmarriage, most people marry those they consider to be like themselves
monogamy
every individual is allowed only one spouse
polygany
one man is allowed multiple wives
polyandry
one woman is allowed multiple husbands
group marriage
several men and women are allowed to be married simultaneously to one another
polygamy
to have more than one spouse
sororal polgany
a man marries many woman who are all sisters
primogeniture
the oldest son inherits the farm and most of its property and the younger sons have to find other ways of supporting themselves
fraternal polyandry
all the sons in a family marry one woman
serial monogamy
having only one legal spouse at a time
marriage alliances
the relationships created between families or kin groups by intermarriages
levirate
if a woman's husband dies she marries one of his close kinsman
sororate
if a woman dies, her kin group is obliged to replace her with another woman, for which no additional bridewealth be transferred
bridewealth
the custom that requires a man and his relatives to transfer wealth to the relatives of his bride
brideservice
the custom whereby a husband is required to spend a period of time working for the family of his bride
dowry
the family of a woman transfers a portion of their own wealth or other property to their daughter and her husband
geneaology
a chart that shows all the relatives of a given individual and how they are realted to that indidvidual
postmarital residence pattern
where most new couples in a society establish their residence
patrilocal
couples live with or near the parents of the husband
matrilocal
couples live with or near the parents of the wife
bilocal
postmarital residence is optional between either the wife's or the husbands kin; roughly one-half of all couples choose each
neolocal
ciuples live apart from both parents, establishing a separate dwelling and independent household
extended families
household made up of several related nuclear families
patrilocally extended
brothers live in a single household with thier own nuclear families and thier parents
matrilocally extended
the household typed formed by the co-residence of daughters and sisters with their parents
bilocally extended
the household is amixture of people related through both sexes in roughly equal frequency
adaptation
the process by which organisms survuve and reproduce in their enviroment, the main ways in which various human groups relate to their enviroments and how these relationships affect their cultural existence
preindustrial people
those peoples whose traditional economies were based on food production, not on the extraction of resources for factory production
environment
1. physical features 2. population of other species 3. member's of the organisms own species
human adaptation
the enviroment includes natural resources that people harness to meet their material needs and second the environment poses problems that people must solve or overcome
production
the patterned activities by which people transform natural resources into things that satisfy thier material needs and wants
factors of production
labor, technology and resources
organization of production
solves problems such as who will do what productive tasks, when, where and how
division of labor
the allocation of productive work to different kinds of people
patterns of cooperation
how members of a group organize themselves to produce what they need and want
hunting and gathering(foraging)
a division of labor based mainly on gender and age, a high degree of mobility, congregation and dispersal of groups, live in small bands, recipricol sharing, not materialistic
agriculture(cultivation)
people intentionally plant, care for and harvest crops(domesticated plants) for food and other uses
herding(pastorilism)
people tend, breed, and harvest the products of livestock(domesticated animals) for food, trade, and other uses
bands
mobile living groups of people
normatively expected behavior
behavior that is expected of everyone and people that regularly fail to share are subjected to riicule or other kinds of social pressure because they violated shared norms
domestication
the intentional planting and cultivation of selected plants and the taming and breeding of certain species of animals
food crops
those species that people intentionally select, plant, care for harvest, and propagate for purposes of eating
livestock
those species that people breed, raise, and control for purposes of providing food or other useful things or for performing work
horticulture
people use only the energy of thier muscles in clearing land, turning over the soil, planting the crops, weeding, and harvesting
shifting cultivation
one type of horticulture, slash and burn
fallow
when land is abandoned to let it recover its ability to produce an adequete harvest
dry land gardening
a form of horticulture, uses no plow, only simple hand tools, powered by human muscles, practiced in dry/arid environments
sedentary
remaining in the same location for an extended period of time
claim
rights over the plot, which includes at least the right to deny other families acess to it
intensive agriculture
a system of cultivation in which plots are planted annually or semiannually, uses less irrigation, uses natural fertilizers, and uses plows powered by animals, fields are farmed more frequently
surplus
over and abover ones own substinnce requirements
civilization
a form of complex society in which many people live in societies
peasants
rural people who are integrated into a larger society politically
nomadism
seasonal mobility
subsistence risk reduction
a way to get food that reduces the risks of other forms
culture
learned from others while growing up, widely shared by members of that society or group, affects the thoughts, actions and feelings of people in that group, acount for the differents in how people act, think and feel
culture is collective
culture is shared by some people in a group
cultural identity
the cultural tradition a group of people recognize as thier own; the shared customs and beliefs thatdefine hwo a griup sees itself as distinctive
society
a territorially defined population most of whose members speak the same language and share a snese of common identity relative to other societies
culture is socially learned
individuals aquire it from toher in the process of growing up
enculturation(socialization)
the transmission of culture to succeeding generations by means of social learning
cultural knowledge
the members of a culture share enough knowledge to be capable of behaving in ways that are meaningful and acceptable to others and adaptive to the natural and social environment
patterns of behavior
how most people regularly and habitually act in certain situations
punan
"accident proneness"
role
a social position in a group with its associated reciprocal rights(privleges) and duties(obligations)
norm
a shared ideal (or rule) about how pople ought to act in certain situations or about how particualr people should act toward particular other people
values
consist of a peopls beliefs about the goals or way of life that is desirable for themselves and their society
symbols
soemthing that means, stands for, or calls to mind something else, may be objects, behaviors or events, are usually arbitrary, there are no inherent qualities in the symbol itself, and conventional, the meaning only exist because the people agree that they exist
classifications of reality
the human and natural environments are divided up according to shared and largely unconscious pinciples
world view
the way that a people interpret reality and events, including their images of themselves and how they relate to the world around them
3 roles of culture
1. culture provides the skills needed to adapt to our surroundings 2. culture is the basis for human social life 3. culture affects our views of reality
unilineal evolution
the 19th century theoretical orientation that held that all human ways of life pass through a similar sequence of stages in their development
animism
belief that nature is populated by spiritual beings
polytheism
belief in many gods
monotheism
belief in one god
historical particularism
the theroetical orientation emphasizing that each culture is the uniques product of all of the influences to which it was subjected in the past, making cross-cultural generalizations questionable, each culture must be studied in its own terms
functionalism
theoretical orientation that analyzes cultural elements in terms of their useful effects to individuals or to the persistence of the whole society
materialists
the theoretical orientation holding that the main influence on human ways of life is how people produce and ditribute resources from their enviroment, Described as the more “scientific” approach. Humans are mammals and must adapt. Technology is applied within environment. This approach resembles that of Malinowski, White, Steward and Marvin Harris.
idealists/humanists
a contemproary theoretical orientation holding that cultural knowledge and behavior patterns are largely independent of the material conditions of life; claims that each culture must be analyzed separately; on its own terms, and mistrusts cross-cultural comparisons, The more “ideal” approach. Culture cannot be explained in the same way as evolutionary theory explains life. Humans are unique and complex communicators and their human wants and needs are not fixed or permanent. Their wants and needs may be satisfied in a multitude of ways.
linear causation
one thing makes another thing the way that it is
intensification
as population grows, people overexploit and deplete their resources, whcih leads to degredation of their environment. This forces them to use thier environment more "intensively".
surveys
used to gather high specific information from a lot of individuals or household quickly
interviews
the fieldworker arranges a time and a place to elicit responses to prearranged questions
consultants/informants
individuals who allow field workes to interview them, key consultans or key informants are people in the community whom feildworkers rely on for the expertise in a particular area and who spend a large amount of time being interviewed or observed
participant observation
a method that required fieldworkers to take up residence with the people they were studying and learn their culture by observation and participation in their daily lives
stereotyping
preconcieved generalizations about a particular group
American Anthropological Association
5 main provision: 1. not undertaking or not continuing research that will be harmful to the host community 2. respecting the wishes of individual reguarding their public identification 3. fieldworkers must obtain the informed consent of people before undertaking work 4. not exploiting individuals or groups for personal gain 5. preserving the integrity of scholorly research and publication
culture shock
the feeling of uncertainty and anxiety an individual experiences in a strange cultural setting
Lewis Henry Morgan
unilineal thinker, studied the family, studied the American beaver, societies range in complexities, adopted the concept of Psychic Unity(humans are similar and connected). Morgan did the first comparative study of kinship and traced the evolution of human society from primeval times to the Victorian Era (Society’s Cultural Highpoint). Humans progress through savagery, barbarism, and civilization.
Edward Tylor
unilineal thinker, interested in religion, studied surviving cultures, the “cultural leftovers”, . He felt religion progressed from animism to polytheism to monotheism
Franz Boas
Austrian physicist who turned ethnographer, worked in the artic, credited for training the most noted, studied Kwakiutl people in Northern Vancouver where he emphasized fieldwork and careful collection of ethnographic data. To explain cultural customs one must examine them from three fundamental perspectives: environmental conditions, psychological factors, and historical connections figures in anthropology, including Kroeber, Benedict, if didn’t train directly, trained the people who trained them, interested in art, historical particularism
Bronislaw Malinowski
borrowed ideas from gerkheim, Phd in physic and math, over in Britain during WWI, got support after figured out what he was doing, Malinowski missed that the kula ring participants were matrilineal cultures
A.R. Radcliffe Brown
looked at kinship and marriage rules and social structure, and at the contribution they made to the benefit of the preservation of function, came up with the idea based on “I know it when I see it”, fieldwork is now critical, was a structural-functionalist who drew on Gurkheim’s sociological theories during his work in the Adaman Islands. Radcliffe-Brown studied how cultural institutions existed to maintain an equilibrium and cohesiveness within society.
Julian Steward
looked at ecological relationships, culture can develop any # of ways depending on how culture used technology and their environment, developed a techno-environmental approach to culture based on Marxist influence. Steward took an approach that focused on adaptation of individual cultures to specific environmental circumstances.
Leslie white
died 1975, forced in college to read Lewis Henry Morgan, traveled to the soviet union, interested in Marxism, the notion that one determines the other, that culture is divide in 3 layer, techno-economic, social, ideological culture evolves as technology increases, a more materialistic view, culture develops from simple to complex, with increasing specialization, was looked at evolutionary development of culture. The greater the cultural complexity and specification the greater the concentration of energy. Culture advances as energy per capita increases
James Clifford
“the predicament of culture”, questioned things, post modernism, theorizes that objective, neutral knowledge of another culture is impossible; anthropologists can never be unbiased observers. Clifford is critical of fieldwork, traditionally contained very little information on the process of research.
Margaret Mead
wrote the "Coming of Age in Samoa", work in the 1920's and 1930's became enormously influential after the books publication, Mead attempted to separate the biological and cultural factors that control human behavior and personality development
technoenvironmental determinist
the belief that environment and technology together determine the basic form of adaptation of a group and that their adaptation in turn shapes the rest of their culture
reciprocity
twoindividuals or groups pass objects back and forth with the aim of helping someone in need by sharing goods with him or her, creating,maintaining, or strengthening social relationships, or obtaining the objects for oneself, no money involved, main purpose to create social or political realationships
redistribution
the members of an organized group contribute products or money into a common pool or fund; a central authority usually has the privelage and responsibility to make decisions about how the products or money later will be reallocated among the group as a whole
market
products or objects are sold for money, which in turn is used to purchase other products or objects, with the ultimate goal of aquiring more money, which can be spent on more products or objects
generalized reciprocity
gift giving with no expectation of a return at a definite time, ex basket of food given to guest that first came in, involved in establishing emotional attachment
economic system
how people priduce the food and products they need and desire
balanced reciprocity
return is expected of equal value, return has to take place when arranged, if the person that give never gets something in return it messes up the system ex. Kula Ring exchange
trade partnership
the exchange of goods without having to negotiate for each transaction , individuals of one tribe or village pair off
wasi
each trade partneer recieved products not readily available to them
negative reciprocity
one wants more one ends up giving up something, like market exchange, ex. The dog
social distance
the degree to which cultural norms specify they should be intimate with or emotionally attached to another
tribute
the rendering of goods to an authority such as a chief
standard of value
the value of the goods and sevices that can be exchanged for money can be compared with one another because money serves as a common measure of how much things are worth
store of value
ex money because it can be used to purchase various goods, it represents wealth or purchasing power in a portable form
multipurpose money
a money that can be used to purchase a very broad range of goods and services
limited-purchase money
money that can be used to purchase only a few kinds of goods
marketplace
where goods are bought and sold, categories of products are limited at marketplaces, producing and marketing goods for monetary profit are part-time activites for many vendors, peasant vendors usually sell products that they or their family members, rather than hired labor, produce
natural category of kinship
biologically given
kin group
a group of people who culturally conceive themselves to be relatives, cooperate in certain activities, and share a sense of identity as kinfolk, multifunctional becuse they organize many kinds of activities
form of descent
how people in a given culture trace their descent, descent can be traced through males, females or both genders
unilineal descent
relationships traced through only one gender are considered more important, people place importance on either thier mother's ancestoral line or their father's ancestoral line, but not both
patrilineal descent
people place importance on thier father's ancestoral line, property is passed down through the male line from father's to son's
matrilineal descent
people place more importance on their mother's ancestoral line, property is most likely to be inherited from one's mother and maternal grandmother and from the brothers of these women, men usually leave most of their propery to theri siter's children
parallel cousins
two sets of cousins are parallel if thier parents are of the same sex, i.e. mother's siter's children, father's brother's children
cross cousins
parents are siblings of the opposite sex, i.e. father's siter's children, mother's brother's children
descent groups
a group whose peoples believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor
unilineal decent group
a griuping of relatives, all of whom are related through only one sex
patrilineal descent group
comprises people who trace their descent through males from a common male ancestor
matrilineal descent group
a group whose members are (or consider themselves to be) related through females, or who trace their descent through female links from a common ancestress, exists when people descended from the same woman through females recognize their group identity and cooperate for some purposes
matrilineal principle
when a matrilineal rule of descent establishes a group of people all related to one another through females, "Everyone joins the descent group of his or her mother", or "Only the children of the female members of a group become members"
patrilineal principle
in any given generation, only males transmit thier membership in the group to their offspring
lineage
a unilineal group composed of several extended families whose members are able to trace their descent through males or females from a common ancestor or ancestress, may exist without being aggreagated into clans
clan
unilineal descent groups whose members are descended from a common ancestor through the male line (patriclans) or a common ancetress throught the female line (matriclan), almost always subdivided into lineages
totemic
thier members are symbollically identified with certain supernatural powers associated with particular animals, plants, and natural forces
Tikopia people
a patrilineal society who live on a pacific island,studied by Raymond Firth in the late 1920's,the lineage contolled rights over land and several other property rights, patrilineages cooperated in religious ceremonies
Hopi people
a matrilineal Native American people of the Southwest, divide themselves into about 50 exogamous matriclans, clans are not residential groups, each clans subdivided into several matrilineagesfemale member of matrilineages usually live in adjoining houses within the village, matrilocal, matrilocally extended households, most property is inherited matilocally
wuya
in the Hopi people, a number of supernatural powers that each clan is mystically associated with, clans usually take thier name after their principle one
clan mother
senior female member of a clan in a hopi societyis in charge of storing ritual paraphernalia and ensuring their proper respect, passes position to younger sister or daughter
male head of each clan
in charge of the performance of ceremonies owned by his clan, passes his position and ritual knowledged to his younger brother or sister's son so that the knowledged is kept within the clan
cognatic descent
form of descent in which relationships may be traced through both females and males, there are no formal rules about whehter individulas join the groups of their mothers or their fathers
cognatic descent group
consists of all the individuals who can trace their descent back to the common ancestor (or founder) of the group, through both female and male links, have overlapping membership
bilateral descent
kinship relationships are traced through both genders, relatives of both parents are reguarded in equal importance, cousins are seen as the same kind of relative, there are no large, well-defined, property-holding groups,
kindred
all of the bilateral relatives of an individual
ego-focused
each individual is the center of his or her own set of realatives