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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anthropology
The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors.
holistic
Encompassing past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture.
culture
Traditions and customs transmitted through learning.
general anthropology
Anthropology as a whole: cultural, archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology.
biocultural
Combining biological and cultural approaches to a given problem.
cultural anthropology
The comparative, cross-cultural, study of human society and culture.
Ethnography
Fieldwork in a particular cultural setting.
archaeological anthropology
The study of human behavior through material remains.
ethnology
The study of sociocultural differences and similarities.
biological/physical anthropology
The study of human biological variation in time and space.
linguistic anthropology
The study of language and linguistic diversity in time, space, and society.
sociolinguistics
The study of language in society.
science
Field of study that seeks reliable explanations, with reference to the material and physical world.
applied anthropology
Using anthropology to solve contemporary problems.
theory
A set of ideas formulated to explain something.
association
An observed relationship between two or more variables.
cultural resource management
Deciding what needs saving when entire archaeological sites cannot be saved.
hypothesis
A suggested but as yet unverified explanation.
enculturation
the process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations
symbol
something, verbal or nonverbal, that stands for something else
core values
key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture
hominid
member of hominid family; any fossil or living human, chimp, or gorilla
hominins
hominids excluding the African apes; all the human species that ever have existed
universal
something that exists in every culture
generality
culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies
particularity
distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration
subcultures
different cultural traditions associated with subgroups in the same nation
national culture
cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation
international culture
cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries
ethnocentrism
judging other cultures using one's own cultural standards
human rights
rights based on justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions
cultural rights
rights vested in religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies
cultural relativism
idea that to know another culture requires full understanding of its members' beliefs and motivations
IPR
intellectual property rights; an indigenous group's collective knowledge and its applications
diffusion
borrowing of cultural traits between societies
acculturation
an exchange of cultural features between groups in firsthand contact
independent invention
the independent development of a cultural feature in different societies
globalization
the accelerating interdependence in the world system today
development anthropology
field that examines the sociocultural dimensions of economic development
equity, increased
reduction in absolute poverty, with a more even distribution of wealth
overinnovation
trying to achieve too much change
underdifferentiation
seeing less-developed countries as all the same; ignoring cultural diversity
anthropology and education
studies of students in the context of their family, peers, and enculturation
urban anthropology
anthropological study of cities and urban life
medical anthropology
the comparative, biocultural study of disease, health problems, and health-care systems
disease
a scientifically identified health threat caused by a known pathogen
illness
a condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual
health-care systems
beliefs, customs, and specialists concerned with preventing and curing illness
curer
one who diagnoses and treats illness
scientific medicine
a health-care system based on scientific knowledge and procedures
paleoanthropology
study of hominid, hominin, and human life through fossil record
informed consent
agreement to take part in research, after being fully informed about it
paleontology
study of ancient life through the fossil record
palynology
study of ancient plants and environments through pollen samples
remote sensing
use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on the ground
anthropometry
measurement of human body parts and dimensions
bone biology
study of bone as a biological tissue
paleopathology
study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites
molecular anthropology
DNA comparisons used to determine evolutionary links and distances
fossils
remains of ancient life
systematic survey
study of settlement patterns over a large area
excavation
digging through layers at a site
taphonomy
study of processes affecting remains of dead animals
absolute dating
establishing dates in numbers or ranges of numbers
relative dating
establishing a time frame in relation to other strata or materials
stratigraphy
study of earth sediments deposited in demarcated layers (strata)
dendrochronology
tree-ring dating; a form of absolute dating