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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Size and social systems of COLOBUS in Africa
single-male polygyny
multi-male polygyny
Size and social systems of GUENONS in Africa
Monogamy (very rare)
Single-male polygyny
Size and social systems of BABOONS in Africa
Big to very big
single male harem (gorillas+gelada)
Old World Monkeys: Africa
Macaques and Leaf Monkeys (or Langurs)
Old World Monkeys: Asia
Natal group
the group an individual was born into
Female resident groups
females remain in the groups they are born into, males leave (e.g. baboons, macaques)
Non-female resident groups
females leave their natal groups and join unrelated females (e.g. spider monkeys, Howlers, chimpanzees, gorillas). Males in the group may or not be related.
Matrilineal groups
social systems based on females that are related through maternal descent (e.g. baboons and macaques)
within a matrilineal group, a set of closer related individuals, often mother, daughters, granddaughters. A group may contain more than one matriline. Matrilines can be related to each other.
Rank inheritance in females
daughters rank directly below mother, no matter how “good” the daughters are.
Age-related rank:
female rank by age
Monkeys and prosimians:
Who stays? Male or Female?
females stay and males leave (mostly)
Social system 5b Community with fission and fusion of parties – female bonded
WHY? +Example
females group to cooperatively defend bigger food sources.

Males can no longer guard more if cooperate with relatives, so solitary
- pygmy chimpanzee or bonobo
Social system 5a Community with fission and fusion of parties – male bonded
Why? +Example
Females scattered but overlapping as food sources vary but females cannot always be together to defend food.

One male can guard more if cooperate with relatives.

Get separate females with cooperative males: common chimpanzee and spider monkeys
Apes... Who stays? Who Leaves?
the females leave and the males stay.
Who? Why?
Female food stressed especially during raising offspring, and care from more than one male necessary to raise offspring.

Tamarins and Marmosets
Social system 2. Monogamy
Many small New World primates

Includes Night monkey and Titi and many of the marmosets and tamarins

A few Old World:
Guenons (monkeys), gibbons and siamang (apes)
Social System of Oranguatan
Fisher’s hypothesis
1. high investing sex (females) selects lower investing sex (males) for mates according to some preferential trait.
2.trait will spread until decrease in survivability counter-balances sexual attractiveness
Handicap Hypothesis
high investing sex (females) selects lower investing sex (males) according to some trait that is costly to produce so that the trait shows male quality in surviving and reproduction
Quality of Offspring (Trivers-Willard) Model
1.Poor Quality Offspring: produce a female with a good chance of reproducing rather than a poor quality male who will not reproduce.
2. Good Quality: produce a male that has a high reproductive potential rather than a female whose reproductive potential is limited.
Competition at Home (LRC) Model
•Subordinates: make sons who leave and can potentially get high rank elsewhere and less daughters to compete and inherit low rank,
•Dominants: make daughters who inherit high rank and be partners.
one male-one female. May mate for life or for season
One-Male Polygyny
One male in a group with several females
one female with more than one male
one male overlaps the territory of several females, but all spend most of their time alone and usually only come together to mate.
Multi-Male Polygyny
many males mate with many females
one male with many females, aggressively maintained by male
Types of Intrasexual Male-Male Competition
Sperm Competition
H. Carl Gerhardt
Studied female choice in gray tree frogs.
List 3 reasons for a female to choose a specific mate (FEMALE CHOICE)
1. Better genes for offspring
2. Benefit directly through acquisiton of resources
3. Preexisting sensory biases
List two females dominant primates
Sexual Cycle
The time of ovulation through the time of menstruation
Reproductive Cycle
The time of fertilization to the end of lactation
Two ways females refuse mates
Sitting Down
Avoidance of the suitor
4 male counter strategies to female choice
o Sneakiness
o Infanticide
o Rape
o The low-ranking friend
What are 2 things females are choosing for?
Parental care
Sexy son/handicap
Two reasons why females would choose to mate with multiple males
1. Confuse paternity to stop infanticide
2. Generate more male investment.
Three reasons to have sex for nonreproductive purposes
o Eases tensions
o Builds social bonds
o Fun!!!
External swelling signals that females are receptive
Females actively seeking sex
Males in monogamous systems exhibit
______-sized testes and ______ penises
Males in monogamous systems exhibit
medium-sized testes and small-medium basic penises.
Males in a single-male or harem system exhibit _____-sized testes and ______ penises
Males in a single-male or harem system exhibit small-sized testes and small basic
Males in a multi-male system exhibit _____-sized testes and _______ penises
Males in a multi-male system exhibit HUGE testes and large complex penises.
The anthropoid order is divided into two main groups, which are ______ and _____
Platyrrhines and catarrhines
Narrow noses
Monkeys of Old World and apes and humans
Broad flat nosed Monkeys
New World
Lesser Apes
Gibbons and siamangs
Great apes
Orangutans, gorillas, chimps
Potential Reproductive Success
Number of surviving offspring that could potentially be produced by an individual (number of eggs, number of ejaculations).
Variance in Reproductive Success
Difference between members of the same sex in how much of the reproductive potential each realizes differences in how many offspring each individual produces relative to each other.
Predicted that sexual selection (variation in mating success-will usually be a more potent force in the evolution of males than in the evolution of females. Tested this hypothesis on fruit flies.
pseudo reproduction
post-partum estrous that occurs in many species when an infanticidal male new-comer is around
Processes by which a species maintains or expands the distribution of a population.