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49 Cards in this Set

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Why was Mendel important?
He developed the idea of particulate inherentence and gene codes for proteins
Four Contributions of Darwin
1. Varitation in offspring
2. Not all offspring will survive
3. Survival of the fittest offspring
4. Traits are inherited
Adaptation
If a species has traits that do well in a particular environment (ecological or social) those traits will be selected for, and this species will become adapted to that environment.
Ultimate
Evolution and genes
Proximate
Cues
Locus
A place on a chromosone for a gene
Allele
Versions of a gene
Mitosis
Each chromosome doubles, and puts IDENTICAL halves into each new cell
Meiosis
Each chromosome doubles, but then matched pairs separate into two cells- these are NOT identical. Then the two copies separate into two cells to make a haploid cell.
Who is Carl Sagan
Devised a calendar that condenses the 15 billion year history of the universe into a single year.
Plato and Aristotle's thoughts on evolution...
Animals and plants form a single, graded contiuum going from perfection to less perfection.
Chain of Being
A chain that links everything from the supreme being down to the lowleist creature.

Extra: Species cannot become extinct in chain of being.
System Naturae
Carolus Linnaues' hierarchical classification scheme, in descending order going from kingdom to class, order, genus, and species, provided framework for the idea that humans, apes, and monkeys had a common ancestor.
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Acquired characteristics could be inherited and therefore a species could evolve.
Georges Cuvier
Leading opponent of evolution.
Catastrophism instead.
Catastrophism
A quick series of catastrophes accounted for changes in the earth and fossil record.
EX: Biblical Noah's Flood
Uniformitarianism
Suggests the Earth is constantly being shaped and reshaped by natural forces that have operated over fast stretch of time.
Natural Selection
The process that increases the frequency of adaptive traits through time.
Three Conditions of Natural Selection
Variation
Heritability
Differential Reproductive Success
Developers of Punctuated Equilibrium (2)
Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould.
Genetic Drift
Changes in frequencies of neutral traits may result from random processes that affect gene frequencies in isolated populations
Gene Flow
Changes in frequencies of neutral traits may result from matings between populations.
Particular Environment referes to the idea that...
We cannot say that one species adapted to its partiuclar environment "Better" than another species adapted to a different environment.
Gradualism
The view of evolution supported by the idea of modern synthesis.
Modern Synthesis
Speciation occurs when subpopulations would become isolated by geographic barriers or when different subpopulations encountered niches
->Results in development of reproductive isolation
-> New Species!
Developers of Modern Synthesis
(4)
Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley, Ernst Mayr, George Simpson
Punctuated Equilibrium
New species evolve quickly, but once a successful species emerges, its characteristics are likely to change little over long periods of time
Genetic Drift
Changes in frequencies of neutral traits may result from random processes that affect gene frequencies in isolated populations
Gene Flow
Changes in frequencies of neutral traits may result from matings between populations.
Particular Environment refers to the idea that...
We cannot say that one species adapted to its partiuclar environment "Better" than another species adapted to a different environment.
Gradualism
The view of evolution supported by the idea of modern synthesis.
Modern Synthesis
Speciation occurs when subpopulations would become isolated by geographic barriers or when different subpopulations encountered niches
->Results in development of reproductive isolation
-> New Species!
Directional Selection
A particular trait is positively favored and the average value shifts over time toward the adaptive trait.
Developers of Modern Synthesis
(4)
Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley, Ernst Mayr, George Simpson
HBD Kettlewell
Moths in Britain
Gradualism
The view of evolution supported by the idea of modern synthesis.
Modern synthesis postulates that...
Speciation occurs when subpopulations would become isolated by geographic barriers or when different subpopulations encountered niches
->Results in development of reproductive isolation
-> New Species!
Directional Selection
A particular trait is positively favored and the average value shifts over time toward the adaptive trait.
Normalizing Selection
The average value does not change, but natural selection removes the extremes.
Wright Effect
Another term for genetic drift
Founder Principle
Small group recently derived from larger pop. migrates to isolation
->if a particular gene is absent just by chance in the migrant group
->descendants unlikely to carry gene.
Genetic drift and natural selection > or < differences between populations in different environments
Genetic drift and natural selection INCREASE these differences
Gene flow < or > differences between populations in different environments
Gene flow DECREASES these differences.
Cline
Variation in gene frequency between the peoples of one region and the peoples of another
Altruism (Self-Sacrificing Behavior)
A behavior that has a fitness cost to the individual exhibiting the behavior and a fitness benefit to the recipient of the behavior.
Hamilton's Rule
Br>C
B: Fitness Benefit to recipient
C: Fitness cost of altruistic act
r: coefficient of relatedness
Kin Selection
Natural selection that acts through benefit to relatives.
Reciprocal Altruism
Exchange of fitness benefits that are separated in time.
WD Hamilton
Genetic basis for the existence of kin selection.
Development of a gene-centric view of evolution.
Forerunner of sociobiology