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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anthropos
Human
Logos
Study
Holistic / Gestalt
All comes together
4 Fields of Anthropology
1. Physical a) forensic b) primatology
2. Archaeology
3. Linguistic
4. Culture
Ethnography
Participant Observation (Field Study)
Enthnocentrism
one society rules are superior to others --> discrimination
Culture Relativism
Non Judgmental
Heliocentric solar system
Copernicus - planets rotate around sun
Geocentric solar system
Earth is center of universe --> wrong
Big Bang
20 Billion Years ago - cosmic explosion
Charles Darwin
Theory of Evolution - Natural Selection; "Origin of Species"
Charles Lyell
Uniformitarianism - little catastrophies by god (1000); Catastrophism (about5)
Jean Lamark
evolution takes place through acquired characteristics (mice - no tail) --> not true
Charles Linnaeus
"Systema Natura" - "System of Nature"; classified things into species
Taxonomy
Kingdom - Animals
Class - Mammals
Order - Primates
Genus/Species - Homo
Gregor Mendel
Heredity
some dominant alleles are able to mask recessive ones
Law of Segregation
Genes for particular trait stay through generations
Heterozygous
Dominant and Recessive gene retain separate ID's through generations
Homozygous
Both genes are either dominant or recessive
Law of Assortment
Genes that control different traits are inherited independent of another
Herbert Spencer
"Survival of Fittest"
Misinterpreted Darwin --> gave right to dominate
After Big Bang
Atmosphere before life: methane ...
Primordial broth heated by bottom and top --> energy source --> plant like bacteria --> 1st plants --> photosynthesis ...
Creationism
Bible Story (7 days)
Hypothesis
educated guess, testable, observable, correctable
Theory
validated hypothesis
Mitosis
cell division --> Identical copy
Meiosis
cell division --> produces sex cells (half of chromosomes)
Watson / Crick
Found genes are portions of DNA
Double Helix
DNA
Sugar, Protein, Basis
Basis: Thymein, Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine - unique
Natural Selection
Favoring one individual over another to create next generation
Adaptian
Beneficial adjustments to environment
Phenotype
Traits that are seen
Genotype
Traits that are not seen
Mutations
Random genetic change
Change alteration that produces new genetic material
Genetic Drift
Chance fluctation within a gene pool
Effects smaller population
"Founders Effect" - Amish-6 finger dwarf
Gene Flow
Alleles from one gene pool get introduced into another
4 forces responsible for change in gene pool.
1. Mutation
2. Genetic Drift
3. Gene Flow
4. Natural Selection
Jane Goodall
"Chimps use tools"
Tanzania
Dian Fossey
Gorilla's are gentle in nature
Pascal de Challin
Gorilla's are fierce, hostile, aggressive
"Descent of Man"
Book of Charles Darwin
Predicted "Missing Link"
Plesiadapis
oldest known primate fossil
Ramapithecus
oldest known homonoid fossil
Baboon
Estrus (female swell --> sex)
live in troops --> safety
Males dominance - hierachy
Barbara Smuts
Female baboon chooses friend as sexual partner
Imo
learned behavior - not instinct
japanese
Harry Harlow
Monkeys need love
Chimpanzees
genetically closest to human (98% DNA)
Dominance with fingers
Hate water
Bonobos
Promiscuous
use sex to bond and gain acceptance
Gibbons
Tree acrobats
Monogamous
Maeve Leakey
discovered oldest bipedal hominoid
Australopithecine Anamensis
Diasthema
space between canine and other teeth
32; 2-1-2-3
2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars
Bipedal
Foramen Magnum (opening in skull that connects brain and spinal cord)
S-shaped spine (body upright)
Shape of pelvis - wider
Parabolic shaped Jaw
Human - arch
Stereoscopic vision
complete 3 dimensional vision from binocular vision
Alea iacta est
Turning Point
Caesar; River called Rubicon; Rome
Related: Apes/Human
Nature decided
below 600cc's ape over hominoid
Apes
Quadrepeds
Knuckle walkers
Life
Began 3.8 billion years ago
Prokaryotes (plants) --> bacteria --> first life
Protozoa --> animals --> eat organic matter
Bishop James Ussher
said that world was created 4,004 B.C. at 9 PM
Melvin Konner
incest taboo
Barry Bogin
plasticity - milk
taller dutch men than american men
Lee Cronk
women who reduce breat feeding --> greater risk of breast cancer
Barbare Smuts
baboon females mate with male that cares for child
Heather Pringle
Ice Age Women
healers and provided 70% of diet
Vaughn Bryant
Humans evolved to eat unsatured fats, little sugar and salt