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53 Cards in this Set

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Bio-cultural Approach
the perspective that anthropologists take from the study of people; it is the interrelationship between what people have inherited genetically and learn behaviorally
Holistic
looking at the whole of a system. In medicine these are medicines that treat the body and mind. In anthropology its looking at humans in the entirety.
Comparative
make comparisons to view objectively, to understand, not to judge
Ethnocentric
view centered on a specific ethnic group, usually one’s own, valuing your own culture over everyone else’s, it is superior or the ‘right’ way. Anthropologists cannot be ethnocentric.
Cultural “Relativism” (perspective)
viewing a culture on its own terms, relative to its own standards
Fieldwork
when you are going out into the field and collecting data; doing research. It doesn’t necessarily mean going out and going into exotic places. Can be lab work or excavations.
Linguistic Anthropology
o focuses on language and how people communicate with each other.
 Includes: body language, tone of voice, gestures, gender differences in speech, hand signals
Cultural Anthropology (socio-cultural)
o Culture – learned behavior that is distinct among different groups of people, it is passed down through generations, it is evolutionary, and changes.
o Within a culture, there are smaller pockets of people to study.
o Different ways of studying behavior – behavior towards medicine, political issues, economics.
Archeology
o study of the past based on material remains of a culture
o old material remains – anything left behind by a culture. Architecture, pottery, tools, doesn’t necessarily study skeletons.
Biological/Physical Anthropology
Study of humans from the biological perspective.
Including past and present
Past – fossil record and evolution of humans
Study non-humans primates; closest relatives
Osteology
the study of bones (recognizing how they grow)
Evolutionary Theory
referring to change within a species; modern populations continue to change (changes in height, in the skull)
Paleoanthropology
the study of hominid fossils and their evolution; also includes taxonomy – classifications and relationships (Lucy)
Primatology
the study of non human primates (chimpanzee’s)
Human Variation
the study of how humans differ from each other (responses to diseases/health, what is race? How are races different from each other?)
Science
process of understanding; understand the world around you; involves
deduction and observation
Scientific Method
Problem Identified (question)
Hypothesis (an explanation)
Data Collection – Testing Experiment (reworking hypothesis/repeated
testing)
Theory – often used like a hypothesis but is really accepted as accurate (its
accepted – set of principles)
Franz Boas
Father of American anthropology
4-field approach =
humans are better understood from as many angles as possible, including cultural and biological.
– he went out into fields and studied growth and
development – skeletal growth; studied skulls, human growth (1858-1942)
Ales Hrdlicka
American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1914 -)
Voice of the field, organized the current research
American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Charles Darwin
Species change, Adaptive Radiation, Gradualism, Natural Selection
o Species change
 Species not static; influenced by different factors of the outside world
o Adaptive Radiation
 From one species can emerge many different species; “common ancestor
o Gradualism
 Slow change; occurring gradually through time
o Natural Selection
 How the environment influences life forms. How it can affects a species and cause it to change.
Middle Ages
common world view – “stasis” – things do not change; dominated
how people thought in the natural world and in the political system (if you
were born poor you died poor; there was no moving up)
Great chain of being
nature is ordered from the lowest and most material to the highest, most complex and spiritual
“Fixity of Species” - middle ages
once something is created it does not change – everything on earth and in heaven did not change. God created the world as is; therefore nothing has changed Idea of stasis of species
Young earth - middle ages
James Usher, looking at the book of genesis calculated the earth at about 6000 years old.
Political Systems - middle ages
Monarchies. Feudal system- King(absolute ruler)-church-nobility-aristocrats-landowners-peasants Strict hierarchy; static status If disagreed in any form they were heretical and thus against the king.
Carolus Linnaeus
Developed a classification system for plants and animals; Mainly known for creating binomial nomenclature
binomial nomenclature
a 2 part naming system for classifying organisms; basis for taxonomy; taxonomist (1707-1778)
genus species
kingdom - phylum - class - order - family - genus - species
George-Louis leclerc Buffon
Recognized the influence of the environment on life forms. Studied the changes in the frequencies of plants.
Lamarck
Known for the inheritance of acquired characteristics “Lamarckianism”; first to
explain how things changed, or how change occured; proposed that if you have a characteristic that is
acquired during an individuals lifetime can be passed on to the next generation;
ideas were never well respected but was valid until proven false – anatomy
Cuvier
idea for catastrophism – a natural disaster would
occasionally hit the earth – wipe out all life forms, and other life forms from other
areas would begin to move in and repopulate the area
Lyell
Known in geology for the theory of uniformitarianism; geological processes that
were at work in the past are at work in the present (wind, rain, erosion – natural)
earth is constantly changing (landscape); because of this the earth is very old –
common belief was that the earth was about 6,000 years old. All of the processes that are occurring allude to the true age of the earth being older than it seems
Thomas Robert Malthus
Population size is limited by resource availability
Competition is inevitable among individuals due to the fight for resources; initial ideology of “natural selection” introduced by Darwin.
“Population Control”
Alfred Wallace
Independently came up with the idea of natural selection – not known for it
because Darwin might have published works first
Charles Darwin
"Origin of Species" and natural selection
Competition
A species will reproduce faster than the resources can support them; therefore there will be competition for resources
Selective pressure
Advantageous traits will survive with the greater possibility
Natural Selection
"Survival of the fittest"
Fitness
Reproductive success
Examples of natural selection
Giraffes’ neck
Medium ground Finches
Peppered Moths
Anti-biotic resistance – “MDR TB or MRSA”
Homunculus
passing from the parent to the offspring a miniature version of a fully formed individual; “little man” – believed that sperm contained a fully
formed individual- it just had to grow
Blending Inheritance
“gemmules”- found in the reproductive organs of the parents they contained different “parts”; and they would mix to become the new person
Cells
the basic unit of life and all complex life forms contain millions/billions
Prokaryotic
simple cells – do not contain nucleus or other organelles
Eukaryotic
complex cells – contain nucleus or other organelles
Organelles
membrane bound sub-cellular component
Cell Types
Somatic Cells – make up your body tissue, bone, muscle.
Sex Cells – (gametes) egg/sperm involve reproduction to form a zygote
Zygote – when male and female cells unite and form a human
Gametes
Sexual reproductive cells
Found in the egg and sperm.
Passes the genetic information
Sugar – dioxyribose
makes up sides of the ladder in DNA
Base Pair Specificity
A-T C-G