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36 Cards in this Set

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Society
an arrangement of institutions, modes of relationships, forms of organizations, norms, etc. constituting as interrelated whole within which a groups lives
What are the characteristics of a society? (7)
1. Long-term interactions
2. Share cultural values,practices and identities
3. Sense of obligation (you do your part)
4. Living in same territory
5. Self-sufficient
6. Exists beyond the life of individual member
7. Culturally distinct
What are the types of societies? (4)
1. Bands
2. Tribes
3. Chiefdoms
4. States
What are the characteristics of a Band?
small-scale
tend to be highly mobile and foragers
few material possessions
egalitarian
What are the characteristics of a Tribe?
may have up to 5,000 people
more sedentary with small villages
have more material possessions
some difference in power and status (ex: more land may give you more power)
What are the characteristics of a Chiefdom?
5,000-20,0000 people
practice large-scale agriculture
substantial material possessions
status based on kinship
leadership is hereditary
What are the characteristics of a State?
20,000+ people
huge diversity of material culture
elaborate specialized architecture
specialized occupations
class-based society
leadership is hereditary or formal elections
What are the components of society?
individuals
households (interact on a regular basis)
communities (interaction btw households)
What is socialization?
Teaching the rules (of a society) either directly or indirectly. Since adults should know these, they should be held responsible for breaking these rules.
What are the approaches to the study of society? (4)
1. Social Structures and Organizations
2. Social Systems
3. Structuration
4. Social Networks
What is Structure? (in terms of Social Structures and Organization)
Totality of institutions, duties, rules and norms that are abstracted from and shape social life.
What is Organization? (in terms of Social Structures and Organization)
How society's institutions are organized in relation to another.
What are Social Systems?
A set of social relations which are regularly activated and reproduced as a system through interactions.
(slang vs formal; student vs teacher)
Looks at both system and individuals but vague as to how individuals shape the system
What is Structuration?
The relationship btw individuals and society. Society is both the condition for human action AND the reuslt of the totality of those actions.
Society does not exist if the individuals do not act for it while individuals cannot live without society telling them how to act.
What are the problems of Structuration?
people participate differently within a society
Individual is present as very homogeneous
Not representative of daily life and experiences
Who is included? Who is left out?
Assumes society has distinct boundaries
What are Social Networks?
Interconnections and relations btw people. They cross cultural and social boundaries.
What is economy?
management of resources: production, distribution, consumption, etc.
What is substance?
Means of acquiring food and resources necessary to exist.
What are the types of substance?
1. Foraging
2. Horticulture
3. Pastoralism
4. Agriculture
5. Industrialism
What is kinship?
study of how ppl are linked/connected/related to others within a society
What are the impacts of kinship?
identity
inheritance
succession of political power
social obligations
alliances
social organization and integration
What are the 2 approaches to kinship?
Decent Theory and Alliance Theory
What is the Decent Theory?
Kinship is based on decent links btw parents and children
What are the 3 types of decent?
1. Patrilineal Decent
2. Matrilineal Decent
3. Bilaterial Decent (both sides, takes a long time)
What is Alliance Theory?
Alliances and relationships are based on marriage.
Endogamous vs Exogamous
marriage within group to consolidate and control resources vs marriage outside the group to create alliances and avoild incest
What is Politics?
The aspects of a society related to the decision-making for a group as well as the administration and implementation of policy
What is Power?
The ability to influence or cause someone/group to do certain things that they wouldn't normally do.
What are the 2 approaches to Politics?
Systemic and Auto-Centered Approach
What is the systemic approach?
understanging how stateless societies are socially and politically integrated. (structural functionalists)
What kind of questions does the systemic approach ask?
What role does politics play in maintaining the existence of these kinds of societies? (how does it relate to economy, kinship, etc.)
How are conflicts resolved?
What are the 3 types of political system?
1. Centralized
2. Leadership
3. Egalitarian
What are the characteristics of a Centralized System?
Hierarchically organized-small group at top in charge (US, monarchs, etc)
Formal system for maintaining authority-creating formal rules/laws that will be enforced (Constitution)
Individuals submit to those in control-often lack ability to do otherwise/don’t have the power to fight back
Presence of elite class (need $ to get elected)
Formal instituions for dealing w/ disputes
Taxation or tribute is paid
Existence of police or military force
Compliance involves coercion
What are the characterisitcs of a Leadership System?
No formal system of authority
South America/south pacific
Leaders lack ability to coerce others
No formall laws exist that maintain leadership
Some consensus among the group is required
Leadership is achieved/can be loss (based on personality, acheivements, etc.)
Leaders are “organizers” rather than “rulers” (feasts, riturals, etc) used as a way to keep them on their side
What are the characteristics of an Egalitarian System?
There are no formal leaders
Decisions based on group consensus
Authority within society is distributed
Positions of authority are based on gender & age
What are the characteristics of an Actor-Centered Approach?
Individual power strategies—how to get and maintain authority (relationship btw those w/ power and those w/out)
Relationship between individuals and political structure within society
Are we determined by theses structure and follow them mindlessly OR do we have some choice in whether we accept it?
How do the political structures within society enable and constrain our actions?
Power to: involves ability to act
Power over: ability to act but also to control others