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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
accultration
exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous first hand contact
diffusion
borrowing traits btw. cultures
independent invention
humans create solutions to a problem
levels of culture
national, international, subcultures
encultration
process by which a child learns his or her culture
characteristics of culture
learned, shared, symbolic, effects how we see nature,integrated, can adapt
ideal culture
what people say they should do and say
real culture
actual behavior viewed by anthropologist
ethnocentrism
view 1 culture better than anothers
cultural relativism
view behavior in 1 culture shouldnt be judged by another
ethnic group
share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, norms because of a common background
race
when ethnic group is assumed to have a biological background
ascribed status
people have little or no choice about occupying them (gender,age)
achieved status
aren't automatic, come through choices, efforts, actions
hypodescent
automatically places children born into the parent of lower minority group
assimilation
minority groups move somewhere and adapt the culture there
multicultural
positive outlook on many different ethnicities
plural society
different ethnicities in a society
prejudice
devalueing someone based on assumed behaviors, values (sterotypes)
discrimination
action upon prejudice thoughts
phonology
study of speech, sounds
morphology
the forms which sounds combine to make morphemes (cats, cat + s= cats)
lexicon
dictionary with all morphemes and meanings
syntax
how words are put together in phrases or sentences
phoneme
sound contrast that makes a difference in meaning
noam chomsky
says that the human brain contains a set of rules for organizing language, language is universal
sapir-whorf hypothesis
different languages produce different ways of thinking
focal vocabulary
special set of terms that are particulary important to a group (farmers)
sociolinguists
study the relationship between language and social
black english vernacular
ebonics
protolanguage
original language
daughter language
descends from same parent
diglossia
high and low dialects
foraging
have mobility, hunting/gathering, usually band and egalitarian
correlations
connection between food production and social unit
types of cultivation
agriculture, pastoralism, horticulture
horticulture
use simple tools> sticks, use slash and burn, rely on several crops, shift from land to land
agriculuture
more land, more intensive, rely on one or two crops, irrigation/terracing, usually sedentary
pastoralism
herding of domesticated animals
- either nomadism or transhumance
nomadism
the whole group moves with the herd
transhumance
only part of the group moves with the herd
economy
system of production/distribution/consumption of resources
means of production
land, labor, technology