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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phoneme
the basic unit of speech, of sound for a language
aspiration
sounds that get air pushed out after they are pronounced. P for example is aspirated
Voiced/unvoiced
voiced means that when you say the phoneme your vocal cords vibrate, and visa vera. F S and K are voiced, z and g are not
allophone
varient forms of the same phoneme that are pronounced slightly differently because of the environment in which they are found
morpheme
the basic unit of meaning
allomorph
different forms that have the same meaning
syntax
The rules by which larger units of speech like phrases and sentences are formed
grammer
the complete discription of a language, including syntax and lexicon etc...
linguistic relativity
the idea that no language is better or more complex etc... than another
ethnosemantics
the study of how a language classifies and organizes the world around it
markedness
lion versess lioness- the idea of the narrowing or brodening of a term
langue
the official grammatical version of a language
parole
the version of a language that is actually spoken in society
sociolinguistics
the study of how language is effected depending on where it is found within a society
backchanneling
A verbal or non verbal siganl inserted by the listen to show that they are paying attention
dialect
the variation of a language to due differences in syntax prononciation etc...
AAVE
african american vernacular enlgish: un pc term unbonics
enculturation
the process by which children learn the rules and values of their culture
mental illness
in anthrological terms, normal, expected, and acceptable behavior in a culture is a baseline; deviance from this baseline is abnormal behavior or mental illness
Winigo phsycosis
a mental illness where the person feels like they are being pursued by supernatural beings and haveing canibalistic fantisies that occured in north american indegiounous peoples
amok
a mental illness found in Indonesia and Malaysia where a person kills people in a deranged state and does not remember it afterwards
latah
a mental illness amoung malaysians usually women whose symtoms are a starting reaction and compulsive immitation of words action etc...
marabout
a traditional Algerian therapist regarded as a saint and healer whose buria place is a shrine
maximizing
how an individul interpret economic norms to their own econ. advantage
foragers
hunter gatherers who move fairly often and who return to their home base to consume what they've found
collectors
hunter gatherers who move less often and who practice storage. they also process stuff at field sites and at home
agriculture
the domestication of plants for the use of subsitence
horticulture
a mode of production that uses part of a plant for vegitative propogation
swidden agriculture
also known as slash and burn- fast depletion however new sites needed every few years
grain agrcult.
used tech. like plough, often animals, fields are perminant
reciprocal exchange
simplist form- two sides of equal status trading
kaiko
a system delayed exchange amoung the Maring of new guina highlands that goes for several months and goes from group to group: lots of dead pigs
generalized exchange
a complex system of exchange between groups that links group to group, often an entire region
potlach
a ceremony of exchang in north coast indians wtih flexible rank where Huge amounts of material wealth are given away to get status
sagali
mortuary distribution of Trobrianders
urigubu
Triobriand exchange ritual honoring fathers for their parenting
informal leadership
sporatic leadership comes into play in certain situations like hunting etc...but does not remain
band organisation
have fixed membership and more cohension that situational leaderhsip groups- organisation based on influence not authority
chieftanship
political organitsation with fixed possions of rank and succession, individuals and kin groups are ranked, and chief has real power and authority based o n thier office,chiefly positions are given to high-ranked individuals and there is a hierarchy of other political positions
ultimogeniture
youngest child inherits
state
a political organisation that has the potential of large numbers of people and is based on territory not kinship. there is social stratifacation and authority exists
anthropology of violence
a postmodernist consideration of violent forms of social control, torture, and cultures of terror, analyzed to understand how they are used to establish hegemony, or domination of one group by another
law
in most general terms, the way that disputes and conflicts are resolved in a society; some scholars suggest that the term applies only to those systems that are written
legal pluralism
refers to the relationship between indeginous forms of law and orginally foreign law that arrived with colonialism
nation
a political organisation that assumes that people who have their own language and culture should have a single political organisation
nation-state
links and ethnic ideaology with a state organisation
failed state
the term referring to postcolonial states after the departure of the colonial period bureaucracy that functioned to maintain a tenuous political cohesion over indigenous groups who may not necessarily have viewed themselves as politically united
World systems theory
teh world is a single market....in which the concept of the division of labor is projected onto the world; associated with the scholarship of Immanuel Wallerstein
ethnogenesis
a process that is produced by contact and colonialism in which people assert a new ethnic identity
ethnonationalism
parallel to ethnogenisus in whcih state power and forces are coopted for nationalistic purposes
Orientalism
theory of Said's of Western culture projection through generation its version and interpretation of islamic culture
nation building
the devel. of a single national culture with hegimonic power. the goal being eliminating regional ethnic cultures