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49 Cards in this Set

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law that says lower layers are older... but sometimes this method is not right like when earthquakes occur
Law of superposition
A type of relative dating that determines which fossils are older, but you still dont know the exact time between the 2 fossils, but you have established which is older in geological time
a type of relative dating in which you compare animal remains found at different sites to determine any similarity in time levels
a type of relative dating dating based on the fact taht the earth's magnetic field has shifted back and forth from the north to the south in the past at irregular intervals
what radioactive K40 (potassium 40) decays into Ar40 (Argon 40)
this method of walking first arose close to 6 million years ago
also evoled beor larger brains
the oldest known stone tool culture
Oldowan tradition
the most noticeable difference betwen H habilis and the australopithecines is
the larger brain size of H. habilis which is 30% larger
a species of genus homo that arose 2 million years ago,, 1st appearing in Africa and then spreading to parts of Europe & Asia.
Homo Erectus
the 1st species to move out of Africa
H. Erectus
the stone tool culture that appears first with the Homo erectus and its characterized by the development of hand axes & other bifacial tools
Achuelian traidition
stole tool with both sides worked, producing greater symmetry and efficiency
the protruding rear region of the skull, a feature commonly found in Neandertals
occipital Buns
A population of Archaic humans that lived in Europe & the middle east, dating between 150,000 & 28,000 yrs. ago
who possesses these traits?
a high cranial vault
high & well rounded
no occipital bun (back of skull is rounded instead)
brow ridges are small
face does not protrude very much
strong chin
Modern Human traits
the prepared core stone tool technology of the Neandertals
Mousterian tradition
what is the best example of prehistoric art?
cave art`
why did early humans paint images on the walls of caves?

(other art includes: engraving, beads and pendants, and ceramic sculpture)
Sympathetic magic (capturing the image of an animal may have been felt to improve hunter's chances of actually killing it

1 thing is for certain they served as a symbolic purpose
Modern humans probably rached the New world between 20,000 and 15,000 rs. ago either by ?
crossing the Bering land Bridge or by boat or both
says that modern humans rose as a new species
the result of evolution within a single species
the hypothesis that modern humans evolved as a new species in africa (cladogenesis) between 150,000 and 200,000 yrs. ago and then spread thoughout the Old World, replacing preexisting archaic human populations
(meaning the Neandertals are not part of the ancestry of living humans)
African Replacement Model
the hypothesis that modern human evolved throughout the Old World as a single species after the 1st dispersion of Homo erectus ot of Africa

H. erectus to archaic humans to modern humans
Multiregional evolutional model
the hypothesis that modern human anatomy 1st arose in Africa, then these changes spread to populations outside of Africa through gene flow
Assimilation Model
in the fossil record the appearance of similar traits with the same geographic region over time
regional continuity
under continued gene flow, regional traits will be lost over time, but some will persist because of?
genetic drift and selection
Modern humans differ from the archaics in having
A. more well-rounded skulls
B. smaller brow ridges
C. prominent chins
factors that can influence a population's genetic diversity?
A) population size
smaller populations lose more alleles because of genetic drift than larger populations and show lower levels of diversity
The 1st hominid found outside of afrrica
African Homo erectus
Africa, asia europe
500-200,000 bp
Avg. brain size 1200cc, rounder skull and less robust than H. erectus, but smaller brain size and more robust bones and teeth than modern humans; many have large brow ridges + receding foreheads +chins ; transitional from-difficult to classify
H. heidelbergensis
Europe, Middle East, 230,000-30,000 bp
avg. brain size is 1450cc- slightly larger than mod. hums. ave; cranium is longer and longer than mod. huans with an occipital bun; protruding jaw, receding forehead + very weak chin; lived in cold climates; large, robust bodies; 5'6' tall many injuries, tools and weapons suggest huntin; buried dead (oldest indentified burial dates to 100,000 bp)
H. Sapiens
Africa, Asia, 120,000- present
avg.brain size is 1350cc; large, flat forehead, very small brow ridges (if present) pronounced chin, very gracile skeleton; tools became markedly more sophisticated in 40,000 bp (Cro-Magnon) they invluded non-stone material like bone tantler and specialized tools (for weaving, sewing, engraving, sculpting, etc.); art appears
H. Sapiens Sapiens
South Africa 120,000-60,000 bp
cave sites, modern climate, marine tools
small mammals, stone for tools; H.Sapiens Sapiens 100,000 bp at Border Cave, carbonized organics, hunting
Klassis River Mouth
N. East Iraq 100,000-35,000 bp
cave site, cave of weak/ infirm, burial of dead, cranial deformation, neanderthals
N. East Israel 120,000- 100,000 bp
cave site, transition to H. Sapiens Sapiens; burials= including those of children
Tabun + skhul
30,000-10,000 bp
H. Sapiens Sapiens; slightly more robust than mod. humans
site yielded 5 skeletons (3 Adult m, 1 adult F, 1 Child) buried w/ stone tools, carved reindeer antlers, ivory pendants, + shells; associated w/ cave paintings at Lascaux, Chauvet
Africa 2.4-1.5 mya
similar to Australopithecines, Avg. brain size is 650cc
beginnings of Brocca's area in brain (speech) 5' tall
100 lbs. ; associated w/ tool manuafauretuse, Olduwan assemblage, chopper-chopping tools
H. Habilis
Kenya 1.9 mya
KNM-ER 1470 modern-llong brain case (750cc cranial capacity, less robust, no large brow ridge) but the face is robust. Some place it w/in H. Habilis, other w/ kenyanthropus platypus, which has a very flat face + small teeth, but otherwise similar to Australopithecines
H. rudolfensis
East Africa- Ethiopia 2.5 mya
main specimen includes partial cranium+ upper jaw; small brain (450cc), gracile form-large front back teeth, but not specialized for chewing like the Robust autralopithecines; possible transitional species between A. Afarensis + homo, which would know A. africanus off the direct human line. Stone tools off the direct human line. Stone tools used to butcher animals + extract marrow found
Australopithecus garhi
Africa 1.8mya
includes some of the African specimens on the small end of the brain-size spectrum
H. ergaster
Asia, Java 750,000 bp solo river
no tools found; hominids outside Africa; Eugene Dubois (discoverer) H. erectus site
Homo Erectus site
China 250,000-20,000+55,000 bp
stone tools, flakes, scrapers+ choppers
no hand-axes, animal bones, charred hackberry seeds--- expoloiting plant materials, 900-1100 cranial capacity
H. erectus site
Nice, France 350,000bp
8 layers, 25m deep, sand silt, river shore site, hearths, Acheulean, Paola Villa-refitting, reoccupation may not have occurred, Henry de Lumely, control of fire
H. erectus site
Terra Amata
Spain 350,000bp
butchering, elephants, early Achevlean, hand-axes, cleavers, core + flake tools; control of fire H. Erectus site
torralba and Ambrona
E. africa
use of plants no evidence for meat eating livign floors w/ achevlean assemblage stone tools fire wooden club
H. erectus site
kalambo falls
East Africa
400,000 bp
Acheulean, 400 + hand-axes baboon hunting
Transitional form
E. africa; Lake turkana, Kenya 3.5-3.2 mya
sim in size to a. africanus and a. afarensis, but witha n unusual mix of primitive and derived traits. primitive traits include: small brain+ jutting lower face; derived tratits
small molars, flat face, and tall cheek region supports idea of past adaptive radiations (wide variety) of early hominins
kenyaanthropus platyops
Europe 60,000bp
Neanderthals, neanderthal characteristics
Neander Valley
Africa, Asia, Europe 1.8mya-300,000bp
face includes protruding jaw, larger molars, no chin, thick brow ridges, and a long low skull, brain size varies from 75-=1225cc, early specimens have smaller brains. Robust skeleteon taller regional variation in size and shape may have been better adapted to walking than M.H. smal brains allo for smaller pelvises found outside of africa, prob.used fire, more sophisticated stone tools. (aschulean Industry) and a more varied diet
H. Erectus