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95 Cards in this Set

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proper roles for applied anthropologists
1. identifying needs for change that local people perceive
2. working with those people to design culturally appropriate and socially sensitive change
3. protect local people from harmful policies and projects that threaten them
ethnography
provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture; ethnographer gathers data, organizes it and describes, analyzes and interprets it to build and present an account
cultural anthropology
study of human society and culture; describes, interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences
biological anthropology
studies human biological diversity in time and space, includes hominid evolution, human genetics, and human biological plasticity, primatology
archaeology
reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains
general anthropology
academic discipline of anthropology
an is holistic
it studies the whole of the human condition: past, present and future; biology, society, language and culture
society
organized life in groups
ethnologists
focus on more general
culture
distinctly human; traditions and customs, transmitted through learning that play a large role in determining the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them. learned by growing up in a particular society; culture is not biological
cultural anthropologists
work with social workers, business people, advertising professionals, factory workers, nurses, physicians, georontologists, mental-health professionals and economic development experts
linguistic anthropology
study of languages of the present and making inferences about those in the past
public archaeology
includes activities as cultural resource management, contract archaeology, public educational programs and historic preservation
anthropological theory
body of findings and generalizations of the subdisciplines
anthropology
a comparative science that examines all societies, ancient and modern, simple and complex; offers a unique cross-cultural perspective, constantly comparing the customs of one society with those of others
2 dimensions of anthropology
1. theoretical/academic anthropology
2. practicing or applied anthropology (public health, family planning, economic development)
etic
shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist; realizes that members of a culture are often too involved in what they are doing to interpret their cultures impartially
OUTSIDE
participant observation
taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing
North Americans working in other countries should:
1. include host country colleagues in their research planning and requests for funding
2. establish truly collaborative relationships with those colleagues and their institutions before, during and after field work
3. include host country colleagues in dissemination, including publication of the research results
4. ensure that something is "given back" to host country colleagues
AAA Code of Ethics
states that anthropologists have obligations to their scholarly field, to the wider society and culture, and to the human specis, other species and the environment
interview schedule
face-to-face conversation asking questions and writing down answers
emic
investigates how local people think; "native view point" INSIDE
cultural relativism
viewing everything from an inside point of view
horticulture
cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production:land, labor, capital, and machinery. they use simple tools like hoes and digging sticks
foraging
hunting/gathering/fishing
agriculture
cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture does because it uses land intensively and continuously. uses domesticated animals, irrigation and terracing
pastoralists
live in North Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa; herders are people who activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yak and reindeer; attachment to animals
nomadism
the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year
e.g. Basseri
transhumance
part of the group moves with the herds
economy
a system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources
economics
study of such systems; focus on modern nations and capitalist systems
mode of production
a way of organizing production - "a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools skills, organization, and knowledge
means (factors) of production
include land, labor and technology
balanced reciprocity
exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household; giver expects something in return-if no return social strain
generalized reciprocity
someone gives to another person and expects nothing concrete or immediate in return; expressions of personal relationships
negative reciprocity
exchanges in nonindustrial societies; exchanges with people outside or on the fringes of their social systems; people want to get something back immediately
potlatch
festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes; memorial to the dead; potlatch sponsor traditionally gave away food, blankets, pieces of copper, etc in return for prestige. enhances one's reputation; increased with the lavishness of the potlatch, the value of the goods given away in it
tribe
economies based on nonintensive food production (horticulture and pastoralism)
chiefdom
form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; relations based on kinship, marriage, descent, age generation and gender
state
form of sociopolitical organization based on a formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification
law
legal code with trial and enforcement
village head
only leadership position; authority is severely limited, leads by example and persuasion, lacks right to issue orders
big man
elaborate version of the village head, but had supporters in several villages; regulator of regional political organization
age sets
included all the men born during a certain time span, each set had its distinctive dance, songs, possissions and privileges
stratification
separate social strata, emergence signified the transition from chiefdom to state; presence of stratification is one of the key distinguishing features of a state
power
ability to exercise one's will over others-to do what one wants
nuclear family
impermanent; it lasts only as long as the parents and children remain together
extended family
three or more generations
neolocal
married couples are expected to establish a new place of residence
descent group
permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry
patrilineal descent
people automatically have lifetime membership in their father's group
matrilineal descent
people join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
band
small groups of face to face; 50-200 people; fairly flexible
classical economics
Adam Smith-invisible hand
bilateral descent
accepts both partilineal and matrilineal descent, but there is patrilineal bias
patrilocal
live with husband's family
matrilocal
live with wife's family
levirate
man marries dead brother's widow
sororate
man marries dead wife's sister
ghost marriage
nuer and dinka; if a young man dies without children-young girl or widow bears children only for the dead husband (all children from other men belong to him)
dowry
brides family brings wealth to the family (India)
brideprice
groom's family brings wealth to the family (Muslim, Sudan)
Eskimoan Family
flexible, move around; bilateral
Hawaiian Family
based on generations;
all in my generation are my brothers and sisters
aunt and uncles are "Mother and Father"
everyone of g-pa generation are gpa and gma
extending terms out
sedentary
Sudanese or Descriptive Family
differentiate between Father and Mother's sides
aunt and uncle different for father and mother's sides...different titles for each
lineage
demonstrated descent; members can recite the names f their forebears in each generation from the apical ancestor through the present
clans
stipulated descent; members merely say they descend from the apical ancestor, without trying to trace the actual genealogical links
exogamy
practice of seeking a mate outside one's own group, has adaptive value because it links people into a wider social network tat nurture, help=pushes social organization outward, establishing and preserving alliances among groups
endogamy
dictates mating or marriage within a group to which one belongs
polygamy
plural marriages-more than one spouse at a time
monogamy
only one spouse at a time
polygyny
man has more than one wife
polyandry
more than one husband
religion
faith, belief in higher power system, traditions, ritual, text?, guide to behavior, tries to explain something, belief-faith;accepted way it is

Louey Morton; Durkheim; Clifford
animism
the earliest form of religion; belief in spiritual beings-Edward B. Tylor (founder of anthropology of religion) included monotheism and polytheism
animatism
belief in "knock on wood" "walking under ladders"
mana
a sacred impersonal force existing in the universe; can reside in people, animals, plants and objects
taboo
high chiefs that had so much mana, their bodies and possessions were set apart as sacred and off-limits to ordinary people
magic
supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims; incl. spells, formulas and incantations used with deities or with impersonal forces
rituals
formal-stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped kinds of behavior; performed in special places, set times in certain orders
rites of passage
customs associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another; found throughout the world
separation
people withdraw from the group and begin moving from one place or status to another
liminal
period between states, the limbo during which people have left one place or state but haven't yet entered or joined the next
incorporation
reenter society, have completed the rite
shamans
part-time religious figures who mediate between people and supernatural beings and forces; general term encompassing curers, mediums, spiritualists, astrologers, palm readers, and other diviners; most characteristic of foraging societies
revitalization movements
social movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society
globalization
interdependency; includes many changes-economic, culture, etc. world becomes a smaller place; links connecting the world have become accelerated

Emmanuel Wallerstein-global system theory; where academics were looking 1970's economic globalization; argued cores, peripheries, semi peripheries
1st world
advanced society
2nd world
socialist countries of eastern europe
3rd world
non-aligned-colonies didn't take sides; poor countries
4th world
native americans, indiginous people; emerged in 1970's
capitalist world economy
single world system committed to production for sale or exchange, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs
modernization
more neutral, not modern-not good; derogatory
underdeveloped
poor because of economic and political developments
imperialism
adopt to country-all about expanding power and land e.g. china and tibet