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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of humn beings as creatures of society with
attention on physical characteristics aand industrial techniques, those
conventions and values, which distinguish one community from all others
that belong to a different tradition\
sub fields of anthropology:
-physical/biological anthro (human evolution)
- archaeology- have to dig
-social cultural anthropology: study of people and cultures--> customs
and practices, knowledge, behaviors, language passed down
through the generations, culture changes over time not static
-medical anthropology: how a disease affects a society or how a
culture deals with it
-linguistics: the study of language
- applied anthropology
attitudes, behavior characteristic of a social group
Cultural Hegemony
the dominance of one culture over another cultural
group, ex. imperialism
Holistic Approach
to look at all institutions in a community and relate
them to eachother
the act of gathering information by the anthropologist when
studying a community through interviews,surveys, immersion, etc
includes differences in study between etic and emic: etic: studying a
culture as an outsider and emic is the study of one’s own culture
Comparative Method
study of cultures by comparison
the practice of viewing one’s own culture as the norm, or
even superior; looking at culture from onw’s cultural perspectve?
Cultural Relativism
understanding of a culture from their own
perspective, hearing voices from other people; trying to understand
culture from within the culture
Human Rights
draws linewhen a practice violates these rights ex
footbinding, female genital mutilation, stoning, death penalt.
Kinship and Decent: Descent divide up into patrilineal, matrilineal,
cognatic descent. Kinship divided between consanguinial (family by blood)
and affinity (members not joined by blood ex. wives, parents friend is
Participant Observation
how to write ethnographies, immersing oneself in
culture ex. Beeja in Guests of the Sheik
Patrilineal Descent Groups
descent is traced through the fathers,
authority with the men, majority of descent groups, usually patrilocal--
wives move into men’s family’s household, conflicts of power between
mother and daughter in law, woman has to have a son ince having a son
ggives her power over daughter in law. inheritence is give to the male.
son have to take care of parents other son is compensated. son performs
rituals. women control money, women get power when they are older Ex.
Matrilineal Descent Group
descent is traced through the mother,
authority is in the mother’s brother. Conflict’s are usually between the
uncle and husband. Husband does not have much authority over the
children, instead it is the mother’s brother. Examples the Navajo and
Double Descent
tracing family through both descent groupss. ex Yakno in
SE Nigeria, Patrilinl live together own loand inheritane and te
Matrilineal perform religious rituats
the marrying into of a higher social status ex. The Nayar
women have to or ccan be excommunicated, “Romance on a Global Stage”
discussed the issue of global hypergamy
Cognatic Descent Groups
choose either the wife’s or husband’s descent
group based on prestige ex Kwakiutl
unilineal descent group
tracing descent exclusively on one side of the
matrilineal puzzle
buil-in strains in the relationship between a woman’s
husband and her brother since both will want to control her and her
children... how to avoid this, if society is matrilocal won’t the men want
to try to exert control over wives and children... solutions: 1 everyone
lives close together so brothers could remain close to sisters 2.
matrilineal descent w/ patrilocal residence-->eventually problamatic
because it only last one generation since the daughter leaves at marriage
and moves in w/ her husband so her children are gone from the matriline.
3 solution is to have “visiting husbands” and brother and sister live
together like the Nayar... Matrilineal implies of male authority, but
this is being challenged by furtther studies of matrilineal society with
more autonomous women with less brother and husband control
from matrilineal descent groups, live close to
wife’s family
live close to or in father’s group
husband and wife move into own house away from both inlaws
go and live w/ groom’s uncle (groom’s mother’s brother)
tali-tying marriage
a practice held by the Nayar in which premenstrual
women were married to one husband, symbolic, spend three days and three
nights (may or may not have sex) huge ceremony (elephants :) relationship
is over after three days, woman can now have her “visiting husbands” a
“mock menstruation” ceremony, during ceremony itself groo ties gold tali
around eck of girl... after ceremo
ny only obligation is to observe 15 days of death pollution for him... man
doesn’t have to be a “visiting husband” if tali tying marriage occurs
after menstruation, woman can be excommunicated and become a slave ...
also can have this fate if woman has relations with a man in a lower caste
than her
more than one husband (nayar, Nyiba)
more than one wife ex. Iraq and the Nayar
more than one spouse at a time
a husband or wife marries dead spouses sister or
brother to keep the line intact. ex. H’mong
bride wealth/price
price the husband’s family pays for his wife ensures
sexual relations
bride’s family gives fmily to husband family to tke care of wife
marriage with in social group/family
marriage out of social group/family
visiting husbands
in matrilineal societies where women live with
brother’s and multiple men (husbands) visit for sex. called sambandam in
Nayar societ... Polyandrous, helps consere resources with population
public and private spheres
when looking at women and gender
men in Native American societies that take on the gender role
of a female, marry a husband (still considered heterosexual marriage),
take part in many rituals,
Third gender, have both male and female entities. In Hindu
religion, the ideal is hermaphroditism, someone who has both male and
fela entities in them... Hijras God is Shiva, conceptualized as s epcial,
secred beings, through a ritual transformation... differed from eunuchs
because eunuchs had disicated testes, and did not partake in
transvestism... dressed as males
Third gender, have both male and female entities. In Hindu
religion, the ideal is hermaphroditism, someone who has both male and
fela entities in them... Hijras God is Shiva, conceptualized as s epcial,
secred beings, through a ritual transformation... differed from eunuchs
because eunuchs had disicated testes, and did not partake in
transvestism... dressed as males
Indonesian matrilineal group faced with the contradictions of
a woman’s role in traditional society as opposed to the model government
one (PKK). Largest matrilineal group in the world and also devoutly
Muslim. Senior woman controls the balance of power. Both descent vand
inheritence are matrilineal, live in a lineage house of 3-4 generations,
senior woman must know adat, her geneology and her family land so she can
manage the affairs of her kin wisely. All collective action of group
requires consensus of all members of the group. Indonesian officials try
to influence women dto be more exclusively involved in the domestic
sphere, as are Muslim officials, state law: all household heads must be
live in clans; natolocally, camps organzed around the women;
Navajo men had sort of dual kinship status, could be consanguineal or
affinal kin to their children, nucleated around head mother, every Navajo
had the right to live with her spouse and every Navajo had the right to
live with their mother. (lived matrilocally, patrilocally, or neolocally)
mother-in-law avoidance, husband couldn’t even look at mother in law.
Husbands had to pracgice Bride wealth (horses/livestock: ensures sexual
rights). Use cto practice sororal polygyny but now it is forbidden.
Menstruating women were not allowed to do much because of the great power
of their blood. Infertile unions were not horrible either
From Southwest india, Caste systems. Matrilineages owned the
village land. Divided into matrilineal clans and were exogamous (couldn’t
have sexual elations w/in a clan because it was seen as incestuous) A
lineage was not an economic unit but rather used mainly for property.
Practiced natolocal marriages (husbands and wives don’t live together) and
the children stay with the mother. Karanavan is the oldest member of the
property group.
groom goes to work for the bride’s family -----> bride service
fraternal polyandry because scarce resources, population control.
Nepalese, Trongba corporate land holding houeholds, property groups.
Spans several generations. Many Males. Also Polygyneous.
Patrilineal Parallel cousin marriage
marry father's brother's daughter
Patrilineal Cross Cousin Marriage
marry mother’s brother’s daughter