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88 Cards in this Set

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Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
Collaboration; Ohlone/Costanoan Indians; fell under sphere of influence of Mission San Juan Bautista and Santa Cruz; Ano Nuevo State Reserve
Analysis (form, technological, stylistic)
Lab analysis (must choose from those available; can't do it all); depends on research question, materials, budget, collaborators; chem of ceramics; fire-scar dendrochronology; seidemtn cores; palynology; archaeobotany; etc.
Ano Nuevo State Preserve
collaboration with Amah Mutsun Tribal Band; Quirosote Valley Cultural Preserve; Fire-scar dendrochronology; sediemtn cores; palynology; archaeobotany; microscopic phytoliths; tobacco seeds found; type conservation of grassland/woodland
Archaeobotany/Paleoethnobotany
Macroscopic; plant remains; flotation (seeds, nuts, etc.)
Construction of Archaeological Interpretations
Varies; based on collaboration, research question, what one finds; influenced by modern times
Association
How artifacts are associated to each other; matrix, provenience, etc.
Attributes (form, technological, stylistic)
Physical features used to categorize certain artifacts (pottery etc.)
Catal Hoyuk
Ian Hodder re-excavated it
Chronology (direct vs. indirect age determination; relative vs. absolute dating)
Law of superposition; dendrochronology; carbon dating (not super accurate)
Direct: directly dating that material
Indirect: association in a dated context
Relative: Ordinal Scale (no calendar date)
Absolute: Calendar System
Classification
Creates order from chaos; group or cluster of artifacts whose physical characteristics or attributes are the same
Context
Primary vs. Secondary
Use related vs. Dump
Coprolite
Analysis of Ecofacts; fossilized animal dung
Curation Crisis
Running out of space for artifacts
Data Processing
used to clean materials (lose data in dirt); chemical analysis of ceramics; archaeological catalogue; database with ID#s; spreadsheet; relate provenience; conserve materials; analysis: dendrochronology, obsidian hydration, seriation, carbon dating
Ecofacts
non-manmade
Datum
reference point in site when mapping things
Debitage
lithic scatters; waste made during production of tools
Dendrochronology and Fire-scar Dendrochronology
tree ring chronology
Fire-scar: collect redwood samples; dating fire-scars; old redwood stumps
Deposition
How something was deposited; how things are left when they enter "archaeological site status"
Ellis Landing (CA-CCO-295)
Nels Nelson excavation; 1906-1908; mined for gardening soil; area destroyed after Nelson's excavations; shell mounds (cemeteries, mounded villages), no debotage
Emic/Etic classifications
Etic: outsiders view
Emic: insiders view
Ethnoarchaeology
Watching people do things
Comparing to modern people from culture being studied
Ethnographic Analogy
Use the present to better understand past
specific: how material culture was used by a particular group of people
general: use insights to understand archaeological materials found back through time; deeper past; analogue based on similar environment or level of organization
NOT SUPER ACCURATE
Excavation methods
penetrating vs. clearing
arbitrary vs. natural levels
experimental archaeology
Dave David! lithic manufacture, lithic use-wear analysis, residue analysis
Elliot Blair
Mongolia one summer; CRM east coast; Alaska; American Museum of Natural History in New York; Great basin in Nevada; St. Catherines Island, GA (Spanish Mission, Mission Santa Catalina de Guale; shell middens; Mid scale; micro scale; Palimpsest of occupations)
Flaked stone technology
Research by experimental archaeology; Pressure flaking methods; Chisel for more precision; hitting core to get a good flake
Flakes
Bulb of percussion; striking platform
Dave David
Cave paintings Klamath Reserve ad Chiloquin, Oregon; Klamath Basin Rock Art; documenting (film); "reformed music major"; didn't want CRM; CRM in Spokane, WA; forrest Service; Experimental archaeology (stone tools; lithics);
Geophysical Survey
electrical current through ground; low impact; magnetometry; etc.
Assemblage
A gross grouping of all subassemblages assumed to represent the sum of human activities carried out within an ancient community
Subassemblage
A grouping of artifact classes based on form and function that is assumed to represent a single occupational group within an ancient community
Law of Superposition
The principle that the sequence of observable strata from bottom to top reflects the order of deposition from earliest to latest
Matrix
The physical medium that surrounds, holds, or supports archaeological data
Obsidian Hydration
Absorption of water on exposed surfaces of obsidian; if the local hydration rate is known and constant, this phenomenon can be used as a relative dating technique through measurement of thickness of the hydration layer
Native Narratives (Oral History/Oral Tradition)
Spoken accounts about the past that maintain historical traditions without reliance on written documents.
NAGPRA
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
Stratigraphy
The archaeological evaluation of the significance of stratification to determine the temporal sequence of data within stratified deposits by using both the law of superposition and context evaluations; also a relative dating technique (LAYERS)
Strata
The definable layers of archaeological matrix or features revealed by excavation
Taphonomy
Study of transformational processes affecting organic ecofacts after the death of the original organisms
Interface
Where different strata meet
Multiple Lines of Evidence
Oral history, written documents, archaeology, etc. Sometimes lead to different interpretations
Orphan Collections
Boxes of artifacts that are just sitting there without being analyzed
Type
(discovered vs. arbitrary)
A class of data defined by a consistent clustering of attributes
Discovered:attributes favored by makers of the artifacts; emic classification; Albert Spaulding
Arbitrary: James Ford; J.O. Brew; etic approach (processual); process is arbitrary; archaeologist biases
Seriation
Techniques used to order materials in a relative dating sequence in such a way that adjacent items in the series are more similar to each other than to items farter apart in the series
Museums
Curate; house artifacts; fund research; house collections used for research
Ozette Site
Pompeii Premise; Mudslide covered the village; one moment in time; great preservation
Albert Spaulding
2 attributes of pottery (grit vs. shell)
2 villages:
1st random selection (25 grit and stamped, 25 grit and smooth, 25 shell and stamped, 25 shell and smooth)
2nd not so random (50 grit and stamped 50 shell and smooth)
2 types must be real; two groups of pots that would be recognized as distinct by past people
Radiocarbon Dating
A radiometric dating technique based on measuring the decay of the radioactive isotope of carbon to stable nitrogen; Half-life analysis; margin of error 50-100+ years; costly
AMS
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Provenience
The three-dimensional location of archaeological data within or on the matrix at the time of discovery
Lot: just based on what large chunk it's in
Point: more exact; look at where it is related to other things in chunk
Ishi
Last wild Indian of California
Lived in Anthro Museum
Made stone tools (obsidian and glass)
Pressure Flaking
A technique used for manufacturing chipped-stone artifacts in which flakes or blades are produced by applying pressure against a core with a punch usually made of wood or bone (DAVE DAVID)
Tribal Museums/ Cultural Centers
Public Outreach by stakeholders
Residue Analysis
Done on lithic tools and ceramics; protein residue analysis; blood residue
Native Landscape Management
Ano Nuevo State Reserve; preservation of what is there
Kashaya Pomo
Fort Ross; Native Californians
Ian Hodder
Break down Linear Nature for Interpretation; Catal Hoyuk re-excavation
Metini Village Site
Fort Ross State Historical Park; Colony Ross; After Russians left became Rancho; Multi-phase field strategy; low impact; Kashaya Pomo Settlement
Fort Ross
Kashaya Pomo; Native Alaskans; Russians; Hunted Otters; Kent Lightfoot
Robert Oswalt
UC Berkeley Linguistic Scholar
Kashaya Pomo Oral Traditions
Thad Van Buren/ CA-AMA-364/H
Farmstead; chinatown; rural example; CRM Project (CalTrans highway 49); evidence of living with natives
Glen Farris
Oral Tradition; Looking at Kashaya Pomo; Oral tradition about Hudson's Bay Company
Plan Map
Bird eye view
Profile
Looking at the wall of an excavation unit; look at stratigraphy
Geoarchaeology
Look at matrix of a site; look at sediments of a site; principles of geology
Phytoliths
Starch grain processing; microscopic; Ano Nuevo State Reserve; plant remains
Market Street Chinatown
San Jose; burned 1887; shifted to different locations (vine street, market street, etc.); short term occupations then shifted; if burned (like market) ideal archaeological context; enhanced preservation with burning; CRM Fairmont Hotel; Allen and Voss
Barbara Voss/Rebecca Allen
CRM archaeologists; taked Stanford into looking at orphan collections from Market Street investigation
Palynology
Analysis of Pollen (ecofact analysis)
Reflexive Methodology
Interpretation Method
Direct Percussion
A technique used for the manufacture of chipped-stone artifacts in which flakes are produced by striking a core with a hammer stone or striking the core against a fixed stone or anvil
Indirect Percussion
A technique used to manufacture chipped-stone artifacts in which flakes are produced by striking a punch, usually made of wood or bone, placed against a core
Overseas Chinese Archaeology
CA flood of new people; Chinese immigration to CA; From SE China; mostly laborers worked in mines, building railroad, agriculture; discriminatory laws passed; gender imbalance; mostly CRM; Angel Island
Pyrodiversity Practices
Ano Nuevo State Reserve
Roger Echo-Hawk
Oral Traditions
Holistic Approach
Use of multiple lines of archaeological evidence
Hyper Reflexivity
Some scholars say you can't ever fully understand the past; we're always stuck in the present; can only tell stories that are made up in the present
Gina Michaels
Ceramics and Chronology
Makah Cultural Research Center
Wash; Hunt Grey Whale Archaeology; Ozette Site Controversy; Incorporated into Tribal Museums
Nels Nelson
UC Berkeley; Shell Mounds; Ellis Landing Site
Steve Shackley
Lithics; stylistic analysis
Zooarchaeology
Analysis of Ecofacts; Animal remains
Spatial Structure of Archaeological Record
Case Study: butchering game, cooking meat
Look at: context (primary or secondary), spatial structure, stratigraphy, chronology, test charcoal and faunal remains, etc.
Data as "theory laden"
The data you collect and the process of analyzing it begins with the discovery of every object. The data offers interpretation
Groundstone Technology
Making tools by grinding rather than percussion force.
Interpretation at the "trowel's edge"
Cata Hyuk site in Turkey. Interpretation throughout the project. Breaking down the barrier between the lab and the field. Post-processual- continually thinking about the process and the context and making interpretations as you go.
Sterile Deposit?????
??????Area where nothing is found??????