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102 Cards in this Set

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cultural adaption
complex ideas, activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive
horticulture
the cultivation of crops with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes
ecosystem
A system, or a functioning whole, composed of both the natural environment and all the organisms living within it.
cultural ecology
the dynamic interaction of specific cultures with their environments
progress
The ethnocentric notion that humans are moving forward to a higher, more advanced stage in their development toward perfection
convergent evolution
In cultural evolution, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by different peoples with different ancestral cultures
Parallel evolution
In cultural evolution, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environment conditions by peoples whose ancestral cultures were already somewhat alike.
culture area
A geographic region in which a number of societies follow similar patterns of life
culture type
Concerns a particular technology and its relationship with certain environmental features.
culture core
Cultural features that are fundamental in the society's way of making it's living-including food-producing techniques, knowledge of available resources, and work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment
Julian H Steward
developed approach of cultural ecology.
studied Peru and Mesoamerica
3 fundamental procedures:
-interrelationship of a culture's technology and it's environment should be analyzed
-Patterns of behavior associated with culture's technology shoudl be analyzed
-the relation between those behavior patterns and the rest of the cultural system must be determined
food-foraging
hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods
carrying capacity
the # of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques
density of social relations
the number and intensity of interactions among the members of a camp.
Neolithic revolution
the profound culture change associated with the early domestication of plants and animals
swidden farming
Also known as slash and burn. An extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops then planted among the ashes.
Gardens of Mekranoti Kayapo
-always follows the same sequence (men clear forest and burn debris, plants of put in where the ashes are but about 25-30 years later the forest looks the same as it did due to lack of weeding)
-stomp an plant and do a cheer (magic to ensure large crop)
-for every hour of gardening - 18,000 kilocalories of food
-Brazil
Intensive agriculture
crop cultivation using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals.
pastorilism
Breeding and managing of herds of domesticated grazing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, llamas, or camel.
transhumance
Among pastoralists, the grazing of animals in low steppe lands in the winter and then moving to high pastures on the plateaus in the summer.
Agricultural Environment and the Anthropologist
Kendall and Chepstow found that intensive farming began in Patacancha valley about 4000 years ago. It was done to counteract erosion and maximize production. Since 1997, ADESA runs the projects in the area
preindustrial cities
the kinds of urban settlements that are characteristic of nonindustrialized civilizations
economic system
a means of producing, distributing, and consuming goods
Jomo Kenyatta
Kenya's first president, national slogan was Harambee (pull together). Traveled to London in 1929 and 31 to request independence. Wrote an autobiography titles Facing Mount Kenya. Imprisoned for 7 years for being an instigator,
techonology
tools and other material equipment, together with the knowledge of hoe to make and use them
leveling mechanism
A societal obligation compelling a family to distribute goods so that no one accumulates more wealth than anyone else
reciprocity
exchange of goods and services, or approximately equal values between two parties.
generalized reciprocity
A mode of exchange in which the value of the gift is not calculated, nor is the time of repayment specified
balanced reciprocity
A mode of exchange in which the giving and the receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of their delivery.
negative reciprocity
A form of exchange in which the giver tries to get the better of the exchange
silent trade
a form of barter in which to verbal communication takes place
Kula ring
A form of balanced reciprocity that reinforces trade relations among the seafaring Trobriand people who inhabit a large ring of islands in the southern Pacific off the eastern coast of Papau New Guinea, and other Melanesians
redistribution
A form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated
conspicuous consumption
term coined by Thorstein Veblen to decribe the display of wealth for social prestige
potlatch
A ceremonial event in which a village chief publicly gives away stockpiled food and other goods that signify wealth
prestige economy
Creation of a surplus for the express purpose of gaining prestige though a public display of wealth that is given away as gifts
Prestige Economics in Papau New Guinea
avg of 33 - Enga close knit extended family
avg of 90 - Enga subclan
avg of 350 - the clan
They must neutralize external threats by maintaining a large, unified group, collaborating in accumulation of food and wealth, and by being strong and wealthy. A Big Man is a local leader who motivated followers to act in concert. Te cycle - series of competitive exchanges that link central Enga clans. 3 major paths for creating alliances are marriage, sharing of food at feasts, and web of debt and credit through exchanges of food and other wealth.
market exchange
The buying and selling or goods and services, with prices set by rule of supply and demand
money
Anything used to make payments for other things as well as to measure their value; may be special purpose or multipurpose
Informal economy
The production of marketable commodities that for various reasons escape enumeration, regulation, or any other sort of public monitoring or auditing
Anthropology in the Corporate Jungle
fixinf IBM's problem was 2 parts: - reorganizing company by outsourcing divisions as independent companies partnering with IMB - restructuring the pay and performance systems for top executives so they are rewarded for cooperating as a team
Anthropology and AIDS
16000 new cases a day, anthropologists look at the relationship between those affected and the social, cultural, political, and economic surroundings
marriage
A culturally sanctioned union between two or more people that establishes certain rights and obligations between the people, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. Such marriage rights and obligations most often include, but are not limited to, sex, labor, property, child rearing, exchange, and status
consanguineal kin
relatives by birth- blood relatives
conjugal bond
The bond between two individuals that are married
afinal kin
relatives by marriage
incest taboo
prohibition of sexual relations between specified individuals, usually parent-child and sibling relations at a minimum
endogamy
marriage within a particular group or category of indivduals
exogamy
marriage outside a group
monogamy
marriage in which both partners have just one spouse
polygyny
marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time
Marriage prohibitions in the US
30 states prohibit 1st cousin marriages, 12 states prohibit in-law intermarrying.
Claude Levi-Strauss
French structuralism - human mind imposes order by seperating the perceived world into elementary bits of info. believes human thought processes are in two polar opposite pairs. Incest taboo comes from the self vs. other thought.
polyandry
Marriage of woman to two or more men at the same time
group marriage
marriage in which several men and womenhave sexual access to one another
levirate
marriage custom according to which a widow marries a brother of her dead husband
sororate
A marriage custom in which a window marries a sister of his dead wife.
serial monogamy
marriage form in which a man or woman marries of lives with a series or partners in succession
Arranging Marriage in India
Family's reputation is most important, matches only in same caste system, offering proper gifts, rarely gossips and never quarrels, skin color
patrilateral parallel-cousin marriage
Marriage of a man to his father's brother's daughter, or a woman from her father's brither's son
matrilateral cross-cousin marriage
Marriage of a woman to her father's sister's son, or a man to his mother's brother's daughter
bride-price
compensation the groom or his family pays to the bride's family upon marriage aka bride wealth
bride service
A designated period of time after marriage when the groom works for the bride's family
dowry
payment of a woman's inheritance at the time of her marriage, either to her or her husband.
family
two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption. Takes may forms ranging from a single parent with one or more children, married couple or polygamous spouses with offsapring, to several generations of parents and their children
family of orientation
family into which someone is born or adopted and raised
family of procreation
family formed when someone becomes a parent and raises one or more children
household
basic residential unit where economic production, consumption, inheritance, child rearing, and shelter are organized and carried out
conjugal family
family formed on basis of marital ties
consanguinel family
related women, their brothers, and the women's offsprings
blended family
married couple raising children together from previous unions
new reproductive technologies
aka NRTs, this term referd to alternative means of reproduction such as surrogate motherhood and in vitro fertilization
nuclear family
a group consisting of one or more parents and dependent offspring, which may include a stepparent, stepsiblings, and adopted children
extended family
several closely related nuclear families clustered together into a large domestic group
polygamous family
one individual with multiple spouses and all of their children
The ever changing family in North America
Colonial homes-everything was everyone's business, there was no distinction between public and domestic life. Women were subordinate. Dancing and forms of dress were prohibited. This ended for a variety of reasons and nuclear families were gaining privacy. Industrialization of 18th and 19th century brought work away from home making the distinction between public and private lives. End of WWII brought the Golden Age of American family 'move to suburbs, husband was the breadwinner, mother stayed holme and cleaned, cooked, child reared" Today, majority of women work, the divorce rate has skyrocketed, many single parent homes or blended. Familt has become personal choice instead of biological connection
polygynous family
A type of polygamous family involving a man with multiple wives and their children
polyandrous family
A type of polygyamous family involving a woman with multiple husbands and their children.
Patrilocal residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the locality associated with the husband's father's relatives
Matrilocal residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the locality associated with the wife's parents
ambilocal residence
A pattern in which a married couple may choose either matrilocal or patrilocal residence
neolocal residence
pattern in which married couple may establish their household in location apart from either the husband's or wife's relatives
Avunculocal residence
Residence of a married couple with the husband's mother's brother
sororal polygyny
Marriage of one man to women who are sisters
fraternal polyandry
Marriage of one women to men who are brothers
Dealing with infant mortality
Dr Margaret Boone studied poor maternal and infant health among inner city blacks. Their infants die at almost twice the rate of white babies. Infant death and miscarriage are associated with lack of prenatal care, smoking, alcohol, psychological distress during pregnancy, violence, ineffective contraception, rapid child bearing in teens, and use of several harmful drugs together. 3/4 of Boone's observants were unmarried.
kinship
a network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations
descent group
Any publicly recognized social entity requiring lineal descent from a particular real or mythical ancestor for membership
lineage
corporate descent group-a unified body or corps of consanguineal relatives who trace their genealogical links to a common ancestor and associate with one another for a shared purpose
clan
typically consisting of several lineages, a noncorporate descent group whose members assume descent from a common ancestor (real or fictive) without actually knowing the genealogical links to that ancestor
double descent
A system tracing descent matrilinealy for some purposes and patrilinealy for others
ambilineal descent
descent in which the individual may affiliate with either the mother's of the father's descent group
fission
The splitting of descent group into two or more descent groups
totemism
the belief that people are related to particular animals, plants, or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestoral spirits
phraty
A unilineal descent group composed fo two or more clans that assume they share the same common ancestory but do not know the precise genealogical links of that ancestory. If only two such groups exist, each is moiety
Resolving a Native American Tribal Membership dispute
several hundred people became tribal members without proper certification. Most micmac adults were at least half-blood (having 2 of their grandparents recorded as Indians). Harold Prins was asked to evaluate and found that from the 1200 claimings, 850 were legit
moiety
Each group that results from a division of a society into two halves on the basis of descent
kindred
An individual's close relatives on the maternal and paternal sides of the family
Eskimo system
System of kindred terminology, also called lineal system, which empasizes the nuclear family by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin
Hawaiian system
kinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term
Iriquois System
kinship terminology wherein a father and father's brother are referred to by a single term, as are a mother and mother's sister, but a father's sister and a mother's brother are given separate terms. Parallel cousins are classified with brothers and sisters, whiel cross cousins are classifies seperately, but not equated with relatives of the same generation
Crow System
Kinship classification usually associated with matrilineal descent in which a father's sister and father's sister's daughter are called by the same term, a mother and mother's sister are merged under another, and a father and a father's brother are lumped in a third. Parallel cousins are equated with brothers and sisters.