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32 Cards in this Set

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taxonomy
Linneaus' classification of organisms by kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species. examines groups and the evolutionary relationships between them.
apes
the pongidae family of primates, including gorillas, orangs, chimps, and bonobos. terrestrial, larger bodied, complex social behavior.
Gorilla
a member of the pongidae/great apes.
gibbon
small hominoids/hylobatidae which are exclusively arboreal
Primates
phylum that includes humans, apes, monkeys, etc.
General Primate traits
manual dexterity, long infant dependence, complex social organization, hand-eye coordination, well developed sight, many are arboeal
general primate anatomy: hands/arms
prehensile, opposable thumbs, tactile pads, nails (not claws), precision grip, facilitate feeding and tree locomotion, mobile arms
general primate anatomy: eyes
binocular vision, color vision, post orbital bars to protect eyes, development of visual organs at expense of smell organs
general primate anatomy: other
large eyes and brain, reduced snout, large cerebral cortex, bear single offspring
hominids
human family. bipedal, large brain, most complex social behavior, less hair
hominoids
superfamily including apes and humans.
distinctive molar teeth, exhibiting a 5 pointed crown, (known as a Y-5 pattern);
orthograde posture;
flexible arm and shoulder joints;
arms longer than legs (except for humans);
absence of a tail;
large, complex brains.
Australopithecus africanus
2-3 MYA. gracile morphology, bipedal (evident by spinal cord entrance into skull,) larger cranial capacity than modern apes, no tools found
Australopithecus afarensis
over 3 MYA, bipedal, Lucy
bipedalism
evidence: big toe in line with foot, knee joint, hip/leg attachment, pelvis shape, arch, placement of spinal cord in skull
Carrying Hypothesis
hominid success based on women: women selected for who are best gatherers, as opposed to men who are best hunters.
Anisogamy
the difference in size between the ovum and the sperm, as a basis for sexual dimorphism
monkey
platyrrhini and cercopithecodia primates, old world and new world. monkey like anatomy. macaques, baboons
chimpanzee
pongidae family, pan troglodytes. exhibit behaviors once thought to be exclusively human, ie, group hunting, tool making and use, food sharing, etc.
orangutan
family pongidae, genus pongo. isolated social organization.
baboon
cercopithecoids, large, complex social groups, old world monkeys, smallish bodies, quadrupedal, have tails.
aggression
a la wilson: all behaviors for defense, survival, etc. everyone has some aggression alleles.
a la hrdy: expressing one's dominance
sexual dimorphism
difference in size, appearance, form between the sexes...basis of male dominance?
"man the hunter" scenarios
Dart suggests man hunted and was selected for traits which made him better at it, thus women benefited as well because of males. traits: upright walking, capacity to eat meat, larger brains
osteodontokerratic culture
making of tools from bone, tooth, and horn- suggested when no stone tools are found.
australopithecus robustus
larger, more robust that graciles, but contemporary. 1-2 MYA. bipedal, no tools found, larger cranium than modern apes
Scavenging hypothesis
humans opportunistically scavenge. this is catalyst for bipedalism, selecting BOTH sexes.
Provisioning hypothesis
sharing behavior selected for, not a physical trait. males go hunt, are selected if they share because females favor them sexually. leads to monogamy. new "man the hunter" scenario?
monogamy
couples who mate together regularly and exclusively
bonobos
Pongidae, pan genus. similar to chimps, resort to sex instead of violence. have alpha females, not males.
human behaviors w/ possible biological basis?
aggression, sexual jealousy, dominance, monogamy, homosexuality, altruism
biases on research/interpretations of primate behaviors?
sexism, personal experience, (Raymond Dart/WWI) culture/society, funding...
taxonomic classifications: human, chimp, gorilla, orangutan?
human: hominids in hominoid super family
chimp/gorilla/orang: pongidae family in hominoid super family