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65 Cards in this Set

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What is a primate?
any placental mammal of the order Primates; has good eyesight and flexible hands and feet. has at least 1 nail.
most live in trees.
What are the characteristics of living and fossil primates?
Well-developed hallux (big toe) with flat nail. long heel bone.. Relatively large eye orbits with reduced distance between orbits. Maximum 2.1.3.3 dental formula; insisors are moving to the front and jaw is shortened.Relatively large brain case.
what is the difference between Strepsirhines and Haplorhines
Strepsirhines have wet snouts. Haplorhines are tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans. (nose)
what is the difference between Platyrrhines and Catarrhines
Platyrrhines (flat nose) New World Monkeys . grasping tail, 2.1.3.3 Catarrhines (Down-Nose) Old World MonkeysApes 2.1.2.3
what is differences between prosimians and "higher" primates.
prosimians are Modern nocturnal primates that are small. have snouts.
higher primates are larger and sleep at night. noses.
Why are Tarsiers no longer classified as prosimians?
because they are more similar to anthropoids (Monkeys, apes, and humans)
what is the difference between New World Monkeys and Old World Monkeys
new world monkeys have flat noses. grasping tail 2.1.3.3 dental formula. old world monkeys have down ward noses. no grasping tail and 2.1.2.3.
How do apes differ from monkeys?
Apes differ from monkeys in several ways. Apes have no tail and generally have a larger body weight than most other primates. They have a more upright body posture and a broad chest. Apes rely more on vision than on smell and have a short broad nose rather than a snout. Apes have a larger brain relative to the body size than other primates do. apes can rotate shoulders completely.
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): Afar Region/Hadar;
Afar is a region of Hadar in ethyopia, "Ardi" and "lucy" was found there.
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): Fayum
Numerous fossil remains of early Anthropoids((Monkeys, apes, and humans) in Egypt near cairo first evidance of sexual difference female vs male size.
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): Koobi Fora
site in east africa (kenya) found a lot of genus Homo (hominids)
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): Laetoli
East Africa – “Australopithecus afarensis” many fossils very well studied, earliest documented “biped” - walk on 2 feet.
http://www.crystalinks.com/lucypaleon2.jpg
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): , Lake Turkana
east africa kenya lots hominids and homo genus.
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): Olduvai Gorge
East Aftrica, found Early Homo, bigger brained ; possible ancestor of later Homo 1.4 – 1.8 mya
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): Omo
first stone tools. 2.5mya just north of lake turkana,
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): Zhoukoudian
line that marks seperation of tool types. asia we have basic chopping tools. europe and africa we have hand axes.
(china) Found at this location are by far the largest collection of H. erectus material found any where.
what is the significance of the following site (including important primate or hominid species found there): Swartkrans
Swartkrans is where several fossils of the Paranthropus robustus (South African forms of the robust australopithecines) were found.
What are Olduwan tools? Who made them?
Homo habilis made the first stone tools. Olduwan Tools are stone tools
What are Acheulean tools? Who made them?
Homo Erectus . beginning and middle Pleistocene era made large stone tools that are flaked on both sides. (hand axes)
What are the different various types of primate locomotion.
Quadrupedalism (moving on all fours/with all four limbs), Bipedalism (standing, walking, and running), Brachiation (swinging, branch running), and Vertical clinging and leaping.
what is the significance of the following individuals: Donald Johanson
Donald Johanson found the "lucy" skeleton (40% of skeleton was found, largest ever) 100k years ago or more.
what is the significance of the following individuals: Raymond Dart
found and interpreted Taung Child
Who was "Lucy"? Who discovered her? Where?
"lucy" skeleton (40% of skeleton was found, largest ever) 100k years ago or more. Donald Johanson found her in "hadar site" in Ethiopia.
Aegyptopithecus
– found in Fayum Most complete and evolutionarily significant 30 – 34 mya About the size of a modern Howler Monkey (13-18 pounds)

first evidance of female and male size differences.
Apidium
found in Fayum Squirrel-sized primate. arboreal quadruped adept at leaping and springing. 30-34 mya
Ardipithecus
5.2-5.8 mya found in middle Awash. bipedal. But retains primitive features.
Australopithecus afarensis
Afar region of Hadar, Ethiopia “lucy” 3 -3.5 mya
Australopithecus africanus
found only in south Africa, 3-2.3 mya Both gracile & robust australopithecines weighed about 50 kg
Dryopithecus
Medium-sized monkey to large chimp, 11-13 mya Arboreal Quadruped w/ possibly some brachiation
Gigantopithecus
475,000-1.5 mya found in Asia 10 feet tall; 1200 pounds
Homo erectus
Asia, 1.5 mya – 400,000 bp
Ancestors of humans
Homo ergaster
(or non-Asian Homo erectus, if you prefer to lump H. ergaster in with H. erectus) made Acheulean tools (those are those hand-axes I showed in class). No Acheulean tools have been found east of the Movius line
Homo habilis
first stone tools 2.9 – 1.0 mya site of “omo”
Homo rudolfensis
ER 1470 thought to be a large homo habilis but is now its own species.
Morotopithecus
first monkey! oldest Miocene hominoid to date 20 mya from Uganda (east Africa) 4-5 feet tall highly arboreal species that probably relied on forelimb-dominated climbing. also walks on all 4
Paranthropus robustus
south african form same as boisei but from south africa
Paranthropus boisei
2.6 – 1.2 mya boisei came from East africa
Paranthropus robustus came from south africa.
Plesiadapis
58-63mya found near yucatana
– about the size of a squirrel to house cat
• still has claws.
Proconsul
Arboreal quadruped
East African Form (23-14 mya)
believed to be immediate predessasor to hominids.
Ramapithecus
thought to be a seperate species, and now is rolled to be a sivapithecus. there isn't ramapithecus.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Discovered in Chad
– Dated to ~7 mya
bipedal
Sivapithecus
Nearly parallel tooth rows
13-5 mya
Taung Child
3 → 4 years at time of death
Challenged dominant belief that the major functional adaptation for the human family was increase in brain-size
evidance that we were upright before we were big brained.
WT-17000
from east africa robust astrolophetecus.
Know the following time periods and the major primates associated with them: Paleocene
65-55mya Plesiadapis , not fully formed primates, still have claws.
Know the following time periods and the major primates associated with them:
Eocene
Eocene - 55-34 mya Prosimians , after this era no more claws. all nails.
Know the following time periods and the major primates associated with them: Oligocene
Oligocene 34-24 mya Anthropoidea (monkeys) Aegyptopithecus (found in fayum)
Know the following time periods and the major primates associated with them:
Miocene
24-5 mya Apes - Gibbons/siamanes (lesser apes) orangutans - goilla - chimp - humans.
Know the following time periods and the major primates associated with them:
Pliocene
5-1.8 mya hominids (bipedal) arthopethecus (all human categories up to human erectus)
Know the following time periods and the major primates associated with them:
Pleistocene
1.8 mya -10,000 homo erectus and neanderthals.
Know the basics of the following dating techniques (materials that can be dated, time ranges):
Chronometric Dating
artifacts and any materials, can give any date. Chronometric techniques include radiometric dating and radio-carbon dating, which both determine the age of materials through the decay of their radioactive elements
Know the basics of the following dating techniques (materials that can be dated, time ranges):
Dendrochronology
time range - 6000 years.
By examining and comparing tree rings, specialists called dendrochronologists can learn not only about the tree but about weather and environmental conditions of the past.
Know the basics of the following dating techniques (materials that can be dated, time ranges):
Potassium-Argon Dating
testing how old "rocks" are
Potassium-argon dating is a form of radioactive dating that is used to measure the age of an object in geochronology and archeology through the decay of potassium into argon, which are abundant elements found everywhere in the natural world.
Know the basics of the following dating techniques (materials that can be dated, time ranges):
Radiocarbon Dating
up to 60,000
establish a close estimate of the date of an old, carbon-based object. Using the properties of a radioactive isotope of carbon,
Know the basics of the following dating techniques (materials that can be dated, time ranges):
Relative Dating
relative dating means that archaeologists date the objects they find on their digs in relation to other objects like pottery and weapons also found at the site.
also for rocks and sediments.
Know the basics of the following dating techniques (materials that can be dated, time ranges):
Stratigraphy
used to determine the relative age of rock layers.
Stratigraphy is based on the principle that rocks are built in layers. The oldest rocks are on the bottom and the newest on the top. Stratigraphy is used to develop geological time lines that are the basis for eras or periods, such as the Jurassic.
Know the basics of the following dating techniques (materials that can be dated, time ranges):
Thermoluminescence
200,000 years
anything crystalline and burnt, any thing buried and dead.

heat up material to get a glow. and then measure the radiation
Know the importance of the following to our understanding of primate evolution:
Arboreal Adaptation Hypothesis
living in trees, adapted to life in the trees. grasping hands, binocular vission.
Know the importance of the following to our understanding of primate evolution:
Budding-Off Model
Population reaches a level that threatens adequate distribution of resources (very successful species).

Some groups compelled to move to new territory in search of resources.

After savannah ”filled” (carrying capacity), groups move to more marginal areas.

Necessary to adapt to new environments
Animal furs/skins for insulation
Fire (light, protection, cooking/predigestion)
Know the importance of the following to our understanding of primate evolution:
Dental Arcade & Formula
humans. 2.1.2.3/2.1.2.3
meaning left side of mouth (upper or lower) has 2 incisors 1 canine 2 premolars and 3 molars.
monkeys have 2.1.3.3/2.1.3.3 or one more premolar on each side.

arcade means shape of jaw.
Know the importance of the following to our understanding of primate evolution:
DNA Hybridization
The assumption is that DNA changes at an essentially uniform rate
heating of dna to seperate and study it better. (see if you can link it up to other species dna)
look at drawing
Know the importance of the following to our understanding of primate evolution:
Foramen magnum
hole at bottom of skull where spine attaches.
Know the importance of the following to our understanding of primate evolution:
Gracile; Robust
robust refers to bigger skulls due to large chewing muscles. gracile means lightly build (smaller) skull structure.
Know the importance of the following to our understanding of primate evolution:
Hominid Functional Complex
bipedal locomotion. dental morphology. brain size.
Know the importance of the following to our understanding of primate evolution
Jolly's Seed-eating Hypothesis
jolly is a person that argues that canines get smaller to grind seeds. (bigger mollers and smaller cannines to chew tough materials. )