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100 Cards in this Set

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Scientific Revolution (18th Century)
Copernicus - heliocentric
Galileo
Keppler- Physics
Descartes- Motion
Newton- Gravity
Georges Cuvier
Extinction and Catastrophism

Earth's landscape is a result of violent cataclysmic events

OPPOSED to LAMARCK
Carolus Linnaeus
Created classification system with two names = Binomial Nomenclature

(John Ray came up with species and genus naming)
Charles Lyell
Uniformitarianism= Geological processes are consistent over time, so big global changes take a while
Thomas Malthus
Food supply is limited so competition keeps population smaller than it would be with unlimited resources
Comte de Buffon
Stressed importance of change in the universe, and importance of ENVIRONMENT as AGENT of CHANGE
Catastrophism
Georges Curvier--> The idea that landscape is a result of giant cataclysmic events
Uniformitarianism
Charles Lyell--> processes of the earth add up
Eukaryotic Cells
-Has DNA in the form of chromosomes
-Distinct nucleus
-Make up multicellular organisms
Prokaryotic Cells
-single celled organism
-No distinct nucleus with membrane, organelles, or anything
-includes bacteria/cyanobacteria
Somatic Cells
Any cell of a living organism other than reproductive cells
Gametes
A mature sex cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex to form a zygote
Daughter Cells
Cells that result from meiosis and mitosis
Mitosis (Process)
1. Chromosomes randomly align in center of cell
2. Chromosomes split in half
3. Cell pinches at the middle
4. Two daughter cells, each with 46 chromosomes (exact copy of original)
Mitosis (Results)
Identical daughter cells
Somatic cells
Meiosis (Process)
1. Chromosomes line up with partners carrying similar information
2. Pairs exchange info (recombination)
3. Chromosomes move to the center of cell
4. Cell splits, whole chromosomes go to each half
5. Daughter cells split, 4 daughters total, 23 chromosomes in each
Meiosis (Results)
Increases genetic mutation faster than mutation
Sex cells
Mendelian Traits
Traits that are only influenced at one locus involving a dominant allele and a recessive allele
Dominant Allele
An allele that masks the effect of others
Recessive Allele
Alleles that are masked by dominant ones
Phenotype
Genetic material that is actually expressed
Genotype
A person's genetic information
Pedigree Diagrams
Male=Square
Female=circle
Shaded=has trait
Unshaded=without trait
You=triangle
Connected line=married
Lamarck's theory of evolution
Inheritance of acquired characteristics

Giraffe stretching its own neck during life==> passed to children
Differential Reproductive Success
NATURAL SELECTION
Natural Selection
Organisms with more beneficial traits will reproduce more and populations will shift in that direction
Gene Flow
When genes are exchanged between populations
Genetic Drift
Statistical possibility that combination of recessive and dominant can change over time and change ratios
Founder Effect
When only a few members of a population reproduce, they do NOT necessarily represent population they came from

Can lead to genetic bottleneck= traits are lost
Mutation
Change in DNA that changes the structure of a gene that (may) then be passed down to kids
Gene Pool (population)
Total compliment of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population
Speciation Process
The process by which a new species evolves from an older species
Geographical Isolation
When a population is separated by a geographical barrier (like a river)
Behavioral Isolation
When two populations cannot interact because of behaviors that may not get along with each other
Analogy
A similarity based on a common function but NO assumed common ancestor
Homology
Similarities based on descent from a common ancestor
Plesiomorphy
A trait that is inherited by two populations from a relatively distant ancestor
Autapomorphy
A trait modified by an ancestral trait, but that trait is found in only ONE population
Synapomorphy
A trait modified from an ancestral trait and whose modification is shared by TWO or more populations
Paleozoic
This is when first vertebrates showed up --500mya
Cenozoic
-Starts after the k/t boundary
-Made up of tertiary and quaternary periods
-65 mya->present
-Age of mammals
Mesozoic
Reptile and placental mammals
70 mya
Includes:
Cretaceous
Jurassic
Triassic
Age of Mammals
Cenozoic Era, Quaternary Period
K/T Boundary
-Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary
-End of Mesozoic era, beginning of ceozoic
END OF DINOS BEG OF MAMMALS
Adaptive Radiation
Diversification of species as they move into and occupy new niches

Species evolve to fit new environments
Nucleotide
Basic unit of DNA = Sugar, phosphate, and 1/4 bases
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid.
Main component of chromosomes, contains genetic code
Introns
Does not code for proteins, interrupts sequence of genes
Exons
DNA segments transcribed into mRNA to make a protein or peptide sequence
Ribosomes
Structures composed of mRNA and protein

Found in cell cytoplasm, essential to the making of proteins
mRNA
Messenger RNA, in Translation it moves from the nuclear membrane to the ribosomes
tRNA
Transfer RNA in cytoplasm binds to a specific amino acid and brings it to the ribosomes and lines amino acids with mRNA
Protein Synthesis
Assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules --DNA directs this process
Placental Mammals
-Use lots of energy
-High reproductive effort
-Enhanced sensory perception (reacting flexibility)
-Big brains, processing
Sensory Perception
To do this:
Big Brains
Processing power
Good reacting/flexibility
Gestation
Carrying or being carried in a womb
Behavioral Flexibility
Ability to ADAPT to surroundings in order to survive
Maturation
Developing
Orthograde Posture
Upright locomotion
Stereoscopic Vision
Where visual images are overlayed on each other for DEPTH PERCEPTION or to MAKE 3-D IMAGES
Infant Dependency Period
The period the child is taken care of by the parent until it can function on its own
Quadrupedalism
When animals move around on all fours, using hands and feet
Bipedalism
Walking around on two limbs (legs)
Brachiation
Swinging through trees using forelimbs
Haplorhine
-Primate Suborder
-Diurnal
-Dry Noses
-Suborders: TARSIERS & ANTHROPOIDS
Lemuriforme
Suborder of Strepsirhines
ALL LEMURS
Strepsirhine
-One of two Primate Paraorders
-NOCTURNAL
-Dependent on sense of smell over vision (Moist noses & NO color vision)
-Solitary, small, arboreal
ALL LEMURS AND LORISES

-Molars with sharp, pointy cusps (INSECTIVORES)
-Vertical clingers & leapers
-Long legs and backs for jumping
Ring Tailed Lemur
-Lemurid (part of Lemuriformes)
-Highly social
-Multimale/multifemale groups
-Dominance Hierarchies, male competition
-ATYPICAL STREPSIRHINE
-Tails used for social communication
Dental Comb
Thin and rounded INCISORS that look like a comb-used for grooming
Post-Orbital Bar
Bar at the back of the orbital socket

Adds some structure to eye socket, but only partially encloses eye
Tarsier
-suborder of HAPLORHINE
-from southeast ASIA
-NOCTURNAL hunter of insects, frogs and reptiles
-Clinging and leaping
-Solitary hunters, PAIR BONDS
-Glabrous(hairless) fingertips
-Incisors (no dental comb)
-DRY nose
-external auditory meatus (ears)
Strepsirhine Traits
-UNFUSED mandible
-Large Orbits
-At least 1 grooming claw
-Protruding jaw
-Better sense of smell than other primates
-ECTOTYMPANIC ring
-Slow quadrupedalism
-Gum, insects, fruit, & leaves
Lemurs=Madagascar
Lorises=Africa & Asia
Callitrichids
-CEBOIDEA family (Marmosets, Tamarins)
-Claws instead of nails
-2:1:3:2
-MONOGAMOUS or POLYANDROUS
-Quadrupedal
-Tamarins do vertical clinging and leaping
-INSECTIVORY (Tamarins eat fruit & marmosets eat gum too)
New World Monkey Anatomical Traits
PLATYRRHINES (platyrrhini)
-found in central and south Africa
-FUSED mandible
-FULLY ENCLOSED ORBITS
-ECTOTYMPANIC ring
-2:1:3:3 Dental Formula
-DIURNAL (except owl monkey)
-ALL HAVE TAILS!!! TAILS!
Platyrrhine Traits
-Long backs, EQUALLY LONG LIMBS
-Arboreal
-Social, Diurnal (mostly)
-Smaller ones=gum and insects (callitrichidae)
-Lareger ones=fruit and leaves
-3 Premolars 3!3!3!
Cebids & Atelids Traits
CEBOIDA family
-Atelids(PREHENSILE TAIL!!!!)=howlers, spider monkeys, inuriquis
-Cebidae=squirrel monkeys, capuchins, owl monkeys
BOTH HAVE:
-can be monogamous
-multimale/multifemale groups
-quadrupedal
-frugivory, folivory, with some insects
NWM Dental Formula
2:1:3:3

EXCEPT CALLITRICHIDS 2:1:3:2
Ectotympanic Ring
Bony ring attached to the ear chamber

Found in STREPSIRHINES & NWM
Prehensile Tail
Tail with the ability to grasp
Cebidae
CEBOIDEA family
Cebines-Capuchin
Callitrichines-Lion Tamarin
Aotines-Owl Monkey
Atelidae
CEBOIDEA family
Pithecines-"Naked Head"
Callecibines-Titi Monkeys
Atelines-Spider Monkeys
Callitrichidae
CEBOIDEA family
Marmosets and Tamarins
GIVE BIRTH TO TWINS!!! TWINS!!
Tamarins
Part of CALLITRICHIDAE family
BIRTH TO TWINS!
OWM Dental Formula
2:1:2:3
Cercopithecine Traits
subfamily of CERCOPITHECOIDEA
-lower, more rounded bilophodont (ridged) molars
-CHEEK POUCHES
-multimale/multifemale (rare monogamy)
-Semi-brachiators/quadrupedal
-ENCLOSED ORBITS
-FUSED mandible
-Diurnal
-eats anything except gum
Colobine Traits
subfamily of CERCOPITHECOIDEA
-FOLIVOROUS-bilophodont molars
Complex stomach for digesting leafy foods
-POLYGYNOUS groups
-Diurnal
-some multimale/multifemale groups, few monogamous
-Semi-brachiators/quadrupedal
-ENCLOSED orbits
-FUSED mandible
-Middle sized jaw (bigger than apes, smaller than strepsirhines
Sectorial Premolar
A CUTTING premolar
Bilophodont Molars
Parallel molars- two transverse edges
External Auditory Meatus
Bony tube formed from the middle ear cavity to the edge of the underside of the cranium

found in: TARSIERS, APES, & OWM
Insectivory
SHORT GUT, SHARP TEETH
Gumivory
STRONG INCISORS, LARGE CAECUM (part of large intestine)
Folivory
Foregut or hindgut enlargement, SHEARING MOLARS
Frugivory
ROUNDED MOLARS, LONG INTESTINE
Prognathic
Protruding lower jaw/chin
ORIGINAL Survival of the Fittest
SPENCER SPENCER SPENCER coined the term (Darwin=Natural Selection)
Transcription
-Coding a genetic message for proteins by mRNA
-Portion of DNA unwinds and serves as a TEMPLATE for the formulation of an mRNA strand
Translation
-mRNA goes from the nuclear membrane to the ribosome
-tRNA comes to the ribosomes with amino acids attached
-tRNA matches up with mRNA
-As tRNA lines up, proteins are formed
Codon
Set of 3 amino acids that is on mRNA... 3 ACIDS! 3!3!
Savannah Baboon
FEMALES REMAIN in troop for life, MALES LEAVE at puberty and seek out a new troop where they form small coalitions to compete for dominance

Fighters have threat yawns, carnivores, subordinate male of female may present itself to dominant male
Cercopithecus Monkeys
-African, colorful
-Arboreal
-FRUGIVORE AND FOLIVORE
-small multifemale groups