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47 Cards in this Set

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Characteristics of modern human morphology (modern H. sapiens)
-high vertical forehead
-round, tall skull
-small, more separated browridges
-small face and teeth
-projecting chin
-other than skull, generally smaller more gracile bones
-canine fossa
characteristics of archaic H. sapiens morphology
-longer, lower skull
-larger browridge
-bigger, more projecting face
-wider nasal aperture
-projecting occipital bone (aka occipital bun in Neandertals)
Pleistocene climate
-pleistocene = 2.5mya-12kya
-repeated glaciations in northern hemisphere
-climatic shifts all over globe, incl. Africa. Lg brains coped better.
-Early and mid pleist lots of glacial advances and retreats. -Longest lasting interglacial phase is 125,000 ya-75,000 ya. Then long glacial phase 75,000ya-12,000ya.
-Evidence of settlement in europe is later than in other parts of the world. Largely bc of glacial conditions. Cultural advance needed to deal with harsh climate. Must have had shelters etc. After 400,000mya fire.
Gran Dolina
-early archaic H. sapiens
-earliest human site in Europe. in Atapuerca mtns in Spain.
-cave with hominid fossils from about 780,000ya. (DATE IMPT)
-No agreement re hominid species (tho txtbk says erectus)
-much later than first hominids in Asia, probably bc Eur was hard to get to due to glaciers.
-most other European sites = 500,000 years later
Heidelberg Jaw
-from about 500,000ya
-Found in Mauer, near Heidelberg, Germany.
-technically the type specimen of H. heidelbergensis.
-robust, large mandible compared to modern. relatively small teeth.
H. heidelbergensis
-contemporaneous with Asian H. erectus, but we don't know if they could interbreed.
-type specimen is Heidelberg Jaw.
-spears from about 400,000ya found associated with it in Germany.
-Spears associated with butchered remains of horses.
-Spears for thrusting, not throwing.
-Spears =evidence of cooperative hunting of big game: communication, social sophistication.
(Arago)
-Cave in Pyrenees in southern France with middle Pleistocene specimens.
-probably occupied during interglacials (too cold otherwise)
-reduced sexual dimorphism in specimens found, suggesting more pair-bonded, nuclear family structure.
-adult female skull found:
-separate, robust brow ridges,
-Forehead is much higher and less sloping than in erectus specimens.
-Face is smaller and less projecting. -still no chin
Sima de los Huesos cave
-early archaic H. sapiens site in Atapuerca, Spain. from 350-500kya.
-fossil remains from at least 30 hominin indiv: most fossil-rich site we have.
-most categorize as heidelbergensis.
-inflated maxillary (cheek) area and large nasal aperture, as with Neandertals. Probably Nean. ancestor.
-Full pelvis that is much larger than modern. BIrth probably easier than modern.
-not a habitation site; bodies somehow made it into cave below surface (fell? thrown when dead?)
-half of sample is juvenile.
Dali
-site in central China. Early archaic H. sapiens from 200-300,000 ya.
-Relatively robust skull, very prominent separated brow ridge.
-Inflation of parietal bosses.
-Still some sexual dimorphism.
-Facial characteristics in this skull are somewhat characteristic of current east asian population. In most european pops. zygomatic pops out from face; in most east asian populations, does not stick out as much. Argument for genetic continuity in fossil record.
Kabwe
-early archaic H. sapiens site in Zambia
-skull about 200,000 ya
-fairly large cranial capacity, Pronounced browridges, more vertical forehead.
-Divets = canine fossa
-zygomatic arches pretty gracile.
-cause of death = ear infection form dental abscesses. rare to know cause of death.
Ngandong
-Asian early archaic H. sapiens site in Java, from between 350,000-130,000 ya.
-only brain cases-- no faces.
-large, robust crania: brain size about 1100 cc, between erectus and modern h. sapiens.
-very large browridge.
Petralona
-Early archaic H. sapiens site in Greece.
-skull. has somewhat larger cranial capacity than other early archaic H. sapiens, but still primitive features like large browridges.
Multiregional Evolution
-Wolpoff
-straight line of evolution from early hominids to modern humans
-H. erectus expanded from Africa into Eurasia, evolved biological features for life there
-continued contact and gene flow across continents ensured that hominids remained one (evolving) species, with regional variations (races)
-H. erectus evolved into archaic H. sapiens 700,000-400,000ya.
-Evidence from fossils in Asia.
* In China, from the time of the Zhoukoudian fossils through Dali, there is a continuity of relatively flat faces and shovel-shaped incisors.
* 2. In Southeast Asia, the evidence of relatively flat and sloping frontal bones with strongly marked temporal lines with strong supraorbital torus development and relatively projecting faces are part of an ongoing pattern first observed in the early fossils from Java, and still seen in living Australians.
Out of Africa /Single Origins theory
-Stringer
-bushy evolutionary tree with lots of extinct side branches
-like multiregional theory, begins with spread of H. erectus from Africa to Eurasia
-hominids live in small isolated populations: no gene flow. several speciation events occur.
-In Europe, H. heidelbergensis evolves into H. neanderthalensis; in Africa and Asia, new Homo species evolve; share resemblance to heid. and nean., but larger brain cases.
-200,000-100,000ya, modern H. sapiens evolves in sub-Saharan Africa and makes a second expansion out of Africa and replaces (out-competes) earlier species.
Fossil evidence for Out of Africa/ Single Origins Theory
-evidence of modern humans existing at the same time as or before Neandertals would support Single Origins
-Four in Africa have early modern H. Sapiens, but dating/anatomy problematic for all.
1. Omo River Basin, Ethiopia
2. Border Cave, between S. Africa and Swaziland
3. Klasies River Mouth Cave, S. Africa
4. Herto, Ethiopia
Neandertals
-lived in Eur, Mid East, and Asia, roughly 150,000-30,000ya. Disappear from record after that.
-Large brain cases, low and long skulls, large, projecting chinless faces, occipital buns, high nasal bones (big noses), no canine fossa.
-complex cultural behavior incl burial of dead
-name comes from one found in Neander Valley in Germany in 1856, shortly after pub. of Origin of Species
Early archaic H. Sapiens sites
Kabwe, Dali, Ngandong, Petralona, Atapuerca.
KDNPA
mtDNA evidence for Single Origins/ Out of Africa theory
-mitochondrial DNA can be traced through matrilineal line: does not combine with father's DNA.
-geneticists have argued that common ancestor of mtDNA lineage lived 200,000 years ago, which suggests more recent evolution of H. sapiens before exodus from Africa.
-DNA too uniform for separate global evolution over 1 mil yrs to be possible
Kebara Cave
-Neandertal site in Israel from 60,000ya
-arms and almost complete torso found
-includes hyoid that is identical to modern, suggesting speech
St. Cesaire
-Neandertal site in France from 36,000ya: one of the latest.
-has mixture of Neandertal and modern features: minimal chin, reduced browridge, sm retromolar gap.
-found with Chatelperonian tools: upper paleo, found with earlier AMH but this is earliest find with a Nean.
Shanidar Cave
-Neandertal site in Iraq from 72,000ya
-burial with wildflower pollen around grave
-front tooth wear suggests use as tools
-lower right arm had been amputated or severed
La Chapelle-aux-Saints
-Neandertal site from 50-60,000 ya
-only 2 teeth left so must ahve had help
-an early find. had spinal arthritis, so at first people thought Ns stooped.
-large nose, occipital bun, long, low skull
Neandertal sites
-Kebara (Israel)
-St. Cesaire (France)
-Shanidar (Iraq)
-La Ferrassie (France)
-La Chappelle-aux-Saints (France)
-Krapina (Croatia)
Assimilation/ Leaky Replacement model
-recent DNA evidence suggests that human origin is somewhere between single origin and multiregionalist theories.
-Group of modern humans left Africa 100,000 years ago and both replaced _and_ interbred with existing populations.
-about 90% of genome from African ancestors and 10% from archaic populations elsewhere.
Omo River Basin
-site in Ethiopia said to be 130,000ya
-skulls with modern human features found-- suggests modern humans didn't evolve from Ns because so early
-but date is contested, methods shaky.
Border Cave
-Site on border betw S. Africa and Swaziland
-modern looking skeletons assoc with tools dated 100,000ya, but may have been intrusive burials into ancient deposits.
Klaisies River Mouth Cave
-cave site in S. Africa from 90-110,000ya
-has fossil remains assoc with tools, but fossils hard to interpret.
-lower jaw is most complete specimen; shows some chin developmt.
Herto
-Ethiopian site 160,000ya
-skulls have combination of N. and modern features, but more modern.
-modern cranial capacity, vertical forehead, smaller browridges, nonprojecting face
-but still significant browridges and longish face
Skhul and Qafzeh
-caves in Israel about 90-115,000ya
-modern H. sapiens
Predmosti
-Upper Paleolithic AMH site 26,000ya Czech Republic
-increase in symbolic behavior: burial site foudn with grave goods, ornamentation, offerings; body treated with red ochre pigments. definite funerary rites.
-has canine fossa.
Zhoukoudian
-29,000ya: An AMH skull recovered there in addition to erectus fossils.
-more robust features than current Asian pop. but has facial flatness
Cro-Magnon
-AMH site in France 30,000ya
-modern features, long bodies.
Lake Mungo & Kow Swamp
-Mungo: AMH site in Australia 40,000ya
-Resemble Kow Swamp skulls (also in Australia, but 10,000ya), suggesting continuity.(Kow are more robust but very similar)
-both look like modern native Australians, but mtDNA shows no link.
Chauvet Cave
-in France, from 32,000ya
-early cave paintings of hunting
-no one knows purpose: art? shamanistic works for good karma?
-areas hard to get to and may have had dangerous levels of CO2.
-tell us what animals were there, e.g. rhinos and lions
Lascaux Cave
-another French site with cave paintings
-about 20,000ya
Mousterian tools
-about 250-30,000 ya
-associated with Ns but not exclusively
-flake tools based on levallois technique
Oldowan tools
-oldest stone tools, about 2.5mya
-pebble tools, not formed or sought specially
Acheulian tools
-1.5mya
-hand axes
Upper paleolithic tool technologies
chatelperronian
aurignacian
gravettian
solutrean
magdalenien

tools made from blades, increasing presence of bone tools
Denisovan cave
-40,000ya. pinky and tooth.
-in Siberia: cold, so good for DNA preservation
-DNA analyzed by Planck institute
-mtDNA not present in modern humans but also 90% dif from Ns: new pop. of homins?
-not given species name: mvmt away from a species model.
Mladec
-Czech republic
-one of earliest AMH finds in Europe
general description of upper paleolithic tool industry
-began replacing Mousterian about 40-50,000-ya
-more complex, sophisticated. made with flint blades.
-some bone, antler, ivory use.d
-first appearance of ornamentation
-lasts until agriculture 10,000ya
deliberate burial of the dead
1st seen 115,000 ya by Kebara Neandertal
Hohlenstein site
-36,000ya ivory carved lion
-earliest Eurasian art
genetic variation in modern humans
...is greater WITHIN major geographic areas than BETWEEN them
clinal distribution of racial traits
-usually in a ring pattern, e.g. blondness in Scandinavia: reduced frequency in rings radiating out from it.
-clinal distribution more likely adaptive; discontinuous distribution more likely result of stochastic forces
biological notion of race
-=subspecies
-continuously distributed human populations whose allelic variation varies clinally